What is APA style?
- The style of the American Psychological Association
APA style is used by:
- psychology classes
- social sciences classes
Why use APA style?
- must cite quotations and borrowed ideas
- information borrowed word for word must be in quotation marks
- summaries and paraphrases must be in your own words
- Establish source’s credibility by using his or her name
- No “dropped quotes” – quotes that are just dropped into a paragraph without identifying where information is coming from
- Each needs to correspond to an entry on the Works Cited page
(Smith, 1999, p. 33).
- punctuation follows closing parenthesis
- If no author: (“Many People,” 1999, p. 33).
- If no page number: (Smith, 1999).
- If no date: (Smith, n.d., p. 33).
- If more than one author for one item: (Smith & Johnson, 1999, p. 33).
- Last Name, First Name. (Year). Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher.
- Example: Smith, John. (1999). Many People, Many Faiths. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s.
- Books with edition numbers: Smith, John. (1999). Many People, Many Faiths (2nd ed.). New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s.
- Books with editors: Smith, John (Ed.). (1999). Many People, Many Faiths. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s.
Newspaper or magazine articles
- Always consider credibility of source – for example, an article from The New York Times is usually more reliable than an article from Cosmo
- Last Name, First Name. (Year, Month Date). Article Title. Newspaper or Magazine Title, pp. Section and Page Number.
- Example: Smith, John. (2001, February 13). Many People, Many Faiths. The New York Times, pp. A1.
- Last Name, First Name. (Year). Article Title. Journal Title, Volume Number(Issue Number), Page Numbers.
- Example: Smith, John. (1999) Many People, Many Faiths. Language 11(3), 156-227.
- Again, always consider reliability of source. For example, a newspaper, journal, or university site is more trustworthy than “Joe’s Homepage.” Always check the author of your material.
- Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. (Date of Publication). Section or Page on Web Site. In Overall Web Site. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from http://Web Address
- Example: Smith, John. (May 19, 2004). Hinduism. Many People, Many Faiths. Retrieved March 25, 2005 from http://www.manypeople.com
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).
- Hacker, Diana. Rules for Writers (5th ed.).
- OR A Pocket Style Manual (4th ed.).
Formatting the paper
- Upper right hand corner of page
- Start on cover page; first page of text will be page 2
- Should include a shortened version of your title
- Insert > Page Numbers > Upper Right > Double click on page numbers in document to add shortened title
- Example: Dolphins and Language 1
(begin halfway down the page)
Dolphins and Language:
What Do They Understand?
(return halfway down the rest of the page)
(return to bottom of the page)
EN 111, Section A
March 2, 2001
Works Cited page
- Page numbers should continue from main body of paper
- Double space, with no extra returns between entries
- Hanging indent: Second line of entry (and any following lines) should be indented
- Alphabetize entries
“References” should be centered on first line of page
- No italics, bold, underlining or font type or size change
Other formatting issues
- White paper
- 1-inch margins
- Double space
- Basic font, like Times New Roman
- 12-point text
- Key is readability