Basic Parts of Speech

Noun: a person, place, thing, and sometimes an idea can be proper (capitalized) or improper

        Ex. The apple is red.     Ex. I would love to visit Phoenix. 

Pronoun: used in place of a noun

Personal pronouns: I, me, you, he, she, her, him, it

Singular possessive pronouns: my, mine, your, yours, her, hers, his, its

Plural possessive pronouns: our, ours, your, yours, their, theirs

        Ex. It is sitting on the table.     Ex. I hate how this looks.

Verb: action words or a state of being that can be changed depending on the tense

        Ex. Charlie jumped on the sofa.     Ex. Charlie is a bad dog.

Adjective: modify, describe a noun or pronoun (can also describe an amount)

        Ex. The sandwich is soggy.     Ex. The blue car sped away.    
        Ex. The four detectives found nothing.

Adverb: modify, qualify a verb, adjective, or adverb (can be conjunctive: however, also, anyway)

        Ex. She rocked the baby gently.     Ex. He fiercely drove the car on the highway.

Preposition: comes before a noun or pronoun to modify another word or demonstrate placement, such as to, with, about, inside, and unlike.

        Ex. Jane sat on the inside of the circle.     Ex. Take Jane with you later.

Conjunction: used to join words, phrases, or clauses to indicate the relation between the two

Coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (FAN BOYS)

        Ex. You told me you finished your homework, but I see that it’s not done.

Correlative conjunctions: always come in pairs, such as either/or, neither/nor, and only/but.

        Ex. Either you finish your homework now or you won’t be allowed any dessert.

Interjection: used to express surprise or an emotion (ex: hey, wow, oh)

        Ex. Wow, that’s an ugly sweater!     Hey, watch out!

Basic Parts of a Sentence

Subject: what or who the sentence is about

        Ex. My dog is huge.

Subject Compliments: a word or group of words that completes the meaning of the subject

        Ex. The old tree is very tall.

Verb: the action word or state of being

        Ex. Sam slammed his hands on the table.     Ex. Those flowers are gorgeous!

Direct Objects: a word or group of words that states the receiver of the action

        Ex. You make me sick.     Ex. You hurt John’s feelings.

Indirect Object: a noun or pronoun that states to whom or for whom the action of the sentence is done

        Ex. You make me sick.    Ex. You hurt John’s feelings.

Object Compliment: A word or group of words that describes or renames the direct object’s meaning

        Ex. That sweater is ugly.

The five main sentence patterns:

1. Subject/verb/subject compliment

The long words in the essay are misspelled.

2. Subject/verb/direct object

The math student learned from his teacher.

3. Subject/verb/indirect object/direct object

You bring me the papers.

4. Subject/verb/direct object/ object compliment

Some people think grammar is stupid.

5. Subject/verb

Sex sells.