Punctuation Patterns

Often, punctuation follows certain, recognizable patterns.  Remember the following definitions when considering the punctuation pattern charts below: An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb, expresses a complete thought, and could stand alone as a sentence.  A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought; a dependent clause cannot be a sentence.

I.  [Independent clause] .

II.  [Independent clause] ; [independent clause] .

III.  [Independent clause]  ;  therefore, [independent clause] .
however,
nevertheless,
consequently,
furthermore,
moreover,

IV.  [Independent clause]  , and [independent clause] .
but
for
or/nor
so
yet

V.  [Clause, phrase, or word] , clause, phrase or word, [clause, phrase, or word] .

VI.  If [dependent clause] , [independent clause] .
Because
Since
When
While
Although
After

VII. [Independent clause]  if  [dependent clause] .
because
since
when
while
although
after