MIOSHA Laboratory Standard
Chemical Hygiene Plan

Chemical Hygiene Plan

Table of Contents

1.0 Scope

1.1 Purpose

1.2 Hazardous Chemical Definition

1.3 Definition of Responsibilities

1.4 Laboratory Authorized Personnel Information and Training

1.5 Record Keeping

2.0 Standard Operating Procedures

2.1 General Safety Principles

2.2 Health and Hygiene

2.3 Food and Drink in the Laboratory

2.4 Housekeeping

2.5 Transporting of Chemicals

2.6 Unattended Experiments and Working Alone

2.7 Labeling

2.7.1 Labeling Basics

2.7.2 Alternate Method for Labeling Multiple Small Containers

2.7.3 Labeling Peroxide Forming Chemicals

2.7.4 Consumer Products

2.7.5 Stationary Containers

2.7.6 Portable Containers

2.8 Procurement, Storage, and Distribution of Chemicals

2.8.1 Procurement of Hazardous Chemicals

2.8.2 Storage of Hazardous Chemicals

2.8.3 Distribution of Hazardous Chemicals

2.8.4 Laboratory Storage

2.9 Inventory Control

2.10 Storage and Disposal of Hazardous Chemical Waste

2.11 Chemicals Developed in the Laboratory

3.0 Specific Safety Procedures

3.1 That Apply to all Chemicals

3.2 Allergens and Embryotoxins

3.3 Chemicals of Moderate Chronic or High Acute Toxicity

3.4 Chemicals of High Chronic Toxicity

3.5 Animal Work with Chemicals of High Chronic Toxicity

3.6 Procedures for Particularly Hazardous Substance

3.7 Procedures for Flammable Chemicals

3.8 Procedures for Reactive Chemicals

3.9 Procedures for Corrosive Chemicals

3.10 Procedures for Compressed Gases in Portable Cylinders

3.11 Radioactive Material Hazards

3.12 Biological Material Hazards

4.0 Emergency /Medical Procedures

4.1 Basic Steps for Emergency and Spill Response

4.1.1 Emergency Situation - Fire

4.1.2 Emergency Situation - Spill

4.1.3 Spill Kits

4.1.4 Non-Emergency Situation - Spill

4.1.5 Power Outages

4.2 Injury and Illness

4.3 Exposure Assessments, Medical Consultation and Examinations

5.0 Control Measure and Equipment /28

5.1 Signs and Information

5.1.1 Material Safety Data Sheets

5.1.2 Generic Signs

5.1.3 Restricted Access and Designated Areas

5.1.4 Storage Areas

5.2 Control Measures

5.3 Personal Protective and Safety Equipment

5.3.1 Personal Protective Equipment

5.3.2 Selecting Appropriate Eye and Face Protection in Laboratories

5.3.3 Safety Equipment

5.4 Ventilation Controls

Appendix A: NMU Chemical Hygiene Plan Awareness Certification

Appendix B: NMU Chemical Safety Laboratory Checklist

Appendix C: Definitions of Physical Hazards

Appendix D: MIOSHIA Occupational Health Standards

Appendix E: Classes of Peroxidizable Chemicals

Appendix F: Document Retention

Acronyms and Abbreviations

CHP

Chemical Hygiene Plan

CHO

Chemical Hygiene Officer

DOT

U.S. Dept. of Transportation

EPA

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

MIOSHA

Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administration

MSDS

Material Safety Data Sheet

NFPA

National Fire Protection Association

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

PEL

Permissible Exposure Limit

PI

Principal Investigator

PPE

Personal Protective Equipment

SAA

Satellite Accumulation Area

TLV

Threshold Limit Value

1.0 SCOPE

Northern Michigan University is committed to employee safety as demonstrated by the University Safety Policy:

“Northern Michigan University believes that a "Total Safety" Program is essential in advancing the well-being of its students and employees.

It is the policy of Northern Michigan University to promote safe living and working through an effective safety program in all phases or our operation: Education, research, student service, public service and employee and community relations.

It is the responsibility of supervisors to make this safety policy effective. All supervisors are responsible for applying sound safety practices and safety education principles to students and employees within their jurisdiction. It is the role of the Public Safety Department to promote the use of safety principles, provide technical services to assist supervisors in their application and ensure compliance with the requirements of the University Safety Program.

It is the responsibility of all employees and all students to cooperate with the University Safety Program by observing all safe practices, policies and standards, and to observe all safety laws and regulations. Additionally, employees and students have the responsibility to alert their supervisors or instructors of any hazard in need of correction, and to suggest safety improvements.”

Furthermore, it is the responsibility of Northern Michigan University, as an employer, to take every reasonable precaution to provide a work environment that is free from recognizable hazards for its employees in accordance with the "general duty" clause of the Michigan Occupational, Safety and Health Act, Section 11(a).

NMU is required by the Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administration (MIOSHA) Hazardous Work in Laboratories standard (the Laboratory Standard - §408.1024 of the Michigan Compiled Laws), NMU’s Hazardous Communications Policy and Hazardous Materials Management Policy to ensure that the necessary work practices, procedures and policies are implemented to protect all employees working in University owned and operated laboratories from hazardous chemicals in the work area.

For the purposes of this document, "Laboratory" means a facility where the "laboratory use of hazardous chemicals" occurs. It is a workplace where relatively small quantities of "hazardous chemicals" are used on a non-production basis.

Northern Michigan University and its employees have the responsibility to be well informed regarding hazardous chemicals and risks associated with using hazardous chemicals in the laboratory environment. This document is for University-wide compliance with the MIOSHA Laboratory Standard and will serve as a broad-based Chemical Hygiene Plan for all University owned and operated laboratories, industrial arts classrooms, and all other places where chemicals are used by employees, students or guests.

The provisions of this plan apply equally to employees, students, visiting scientists, or Research Associates who are authorized to work in University owned and operated laboratories. Throughout this document, the phrase “laboratory authorized personnel” or “laboratory authorized person(s)” will mean “employees, students, visiting scientists or Research Associates who are authorized to enter or work in University owned and operated laboratories. In addition, the terms laboratory or laboratories are intended to include industrial arts shops/classrooms, nursing labs, or similar settings where hazardous chemicals or potentially hazardous work practices are involved.

1.1 PURPOSE

The purpose of this Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) is to minimize or eliminate human exposure to hazardous chemicals in the laboratory and in the field. This document serves as the written policy/procedure for University compliance to the MIOSHA Laboratory Standard, and the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) requirements of the standard. All laboratory authorized personnel engaged in the laboratory use of hazardous chemicals are required to comply with this document.

This CHP is designed to be a “living document.” It will be reviewed annually from its effective date by the Safety Director and University Safety Committee, and revised and updated as needed. This review and approval will be conducted in accordance with the provisions of the Hazardous Materials Management Policy ( http://www.nmu.edu/policy/hazardous_materials.htm ).

The University Chemical Hygiene Plan is available to authorized persons through the University web site: http://www.nmu.edu/safety [This is a place-holder for the final address of the CHP].

1.2 HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL DEFINITION

MIOSHA recognizes that a chemical may pose a health or physical hazard. Any chemical that is a health or physical hazard is a hazardous chemical. These are defined by MIOSHA as follows:

A chemical is a health hazard if there is statistically significant evidence, based on at least 1 study that is conducted in accordance with established scientific principles, that acute or chronic health effects may occur in laboratory authorized personnel who are exposed to the chemical. These health effects include those that result from exposure to chemicals which are any of the following:

1. Carcinogens

2. Toxic or highly toxic agents

3. Reproductive toxins

4. Irritants

5. Corrosives

6. Sensitizers

7. Hepatotoxins

8. Nephrotoxins

9. Neurotoxins

10. Agents that act on the hematopoietic systems

11. Agents that damage the lungs, skin, eyes or mucous membranes

A chemical is a physical hazard if there is scientifically valid evidence that it is any of the following (See appendix C for definition of terms):

1. A combustible liquid

2. A compressed gas

3. Explosive

4. Flammable

5. An organic peroxide

6. An explosive

7. An oxidizer

8. A pyrophoric

9. An unstable material (reactive)

10. A water reactive material

Particularly hazardous substances are defined by MIOSHA to include select carcinogens, reproductive toxins, and substances that have a high degree of acute or chronic toxicity.

Select carcinogens are defined by MIOSHA to be identical with the definition adopted by OSHA which is:

Select carcinogen means any substance which meets one of the following criteria:

(i) It is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen; or

(ii) It is listed under the category, "known to be carcinogens," in the Annual Report on Carcinogens published by the National Toxicology Program (NTP)(latest edition); or

(iii) It is listed under Group 1 ("carcinogenic to humans") by the International Agency for research on Cancer Monographs (IARC)(latest editions); or

(iv) It is listed in either Group 2A or 2B by IARC or under the category, "reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens" by NTP, and causes statistically significant tumor incidence in experimental animals in accordance with any of the following criteria:

(A) After inhalation exposure of 6-7 hours per day, 5 days per week, for a significant portion of a lifetime to dosages of less than 10 mg/m(3);

(B) After repeated skin application of less than 300 (mg/kg of body weight) per week; or

(C) After oral dosages of less than 50 mg/kg of body weight per day.

Reproductive toxicants are defined by MIOSHA as any chemicals that affect the reproductive capabilities, including chromosomal damage (mutations) and effects on fetuses (teratogenesis). Information on reproductive effects will be listed on the MSDS.

Chemicals with a high degree of acute and chronic toxicity are not defined in the Laboratory Standard. Therefore, the MIOSHA Hazard Communication definition of a highly toxic chemical will be used. Chemicals with a high degree of acute toxicity are chemicals that have a median lethal dose (LD50) of 50 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each. The LD50 is that dose at which a lethal response is observed in 50% of the test animals.

The following sources have established lists of hazardous chemicals based on substantiated tests:

1. OSHA, 29 CFR 1910.1200 Subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances and Appendices A and B of OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1200 which are referenced in MIOSHA R325.70101(2)

2. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), “Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents in the Work Environment,” (latest edition) The hazard(s) of a chemical may also be listed on its container label. Additionally, if the hazard of a chemical is not evident from the container label, the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) will list the specific hazards. Use the MSDS to address chronic toxicity.

In addition to the foregoing, Northern Michigan University will regard as hazardous chemicals

1. any chemical that bears a Hazardous Material Information System (HMIS) rating of 2, 3 or 4

2. any chemical that bears a National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) rating of 2, 3 or 4.

3. any chemical that has a bio-safety level of 2, 3 or 4

4. any chemical that is described in its MSDS as toxic or with additional modifiers such as “highly toxic.”

If you are not sure a chemical you are using is hazardous, review the Material Safety Data Sheet for the substance or contact your supervisor.

1.3 DEFINITION OF RESPONSIBILITIES

Chemical Hygiene Responsibilities

Responsibility for chemical hygiene rests at all levels including the:

1. President of the University, who has ultimate responsibility for chemical hygiene within the University and must, with other administrators, provide continuing support for institutional chemical hygiene.

2. The University Safety Director who is responsible for the implementation of the University Safety Program

3. The Dean of the college who is responsible for ensuring that all aspects of the University Safety Program are implemented within the college.

4. Department Head, who is responsible for chemical hygiene within the department and serves as the Chemical Hygiene Officer and who must:

(a) Work with administrators and other employees to develop and implement appropriate chemical hygiene policies and practices;

(b) Monitor procurement, use, and disposal of chemicals used in the lab;

(c) See that appropriate audits are maintained;

(d) Help project directors develop precautions and adequate facilities;

(e) Know the current regulatory requirements; and

(f) Seek ways to improve the chemical hygiene program.

5. Laboratory supervisor1, who has overall responsibility for chemical hygiene in the laboratory including responsibility to:

(a) Ensure that workers know and follow the chemical hygiene rules, that protective equipment is available and in working order, and that appropriate training has been provided;

(b) Provide regular, formal chemical hygiene and housekeeping inspections including routine inspections of emergency equipment;

(c) Know the current legal requirements concerning regulated substances;

(d) Determine the required levels of protective apparel and equipment; and

(e) Ensure that facilities and training for use of any material being ordered are adequate.

6. Project director or director of other specific operation, who has primary responsibility for chemical hygiene procedures for that operation.

1Laboratory Supervisor means any person who has been designated by the Chemical Hygiene Officer as having responsibility for the personal use of a laboratory or to supervise others who use a laboratory. A Laboratory Supervisor must be a department head, a faculty member, adjunct faculty member, post doctoral faculty member, or a graduate teaching assistant. A Laboratory Supervisor must be qualified to assure compliance with this Chemical Hygiene Plan.

The Department Head has the responsibility for implementing the chemical hygiene plan in the department, and providing continuing support for chemical hygiene and the proper handling of all hazardous materials including radioactive material and biological materials.

There shall be a Department Safety Committee of three or more members to review and recommend policies that provide for safe conduct involving hazardous chemicals and to develop guidelines for reviewing and approving the use of high risk substance in the laboratories. The Departmental Safety Committee is recommended by the Department Head and notification of the committee’s membership provided to the College Dean and University Safety Director.

There shall be departmental representation in the University Safety Committee oversight structure as determined by University Safety Director.

Research Projects

Scientific research projects or investigations must be reviewed and approved by the department’s Chemical Hygiene Officer and Safety Committee prior to the commencement of the project. The proposal for a research project must contain

1. The name of the Principal Investigator who will be in charge of the project.

2. A statement of known hazardous risks associated with the project.

3. A statement of known security risks associated with the project.

4. A safety/security plan for the project that addresses

a. Chain of custody for substances of known risk

b. Safety training

c. Record keeping

Records of research projects must be retained by the department for seven years.

The Department Chemical Hygiene Officer sits on the Department Safety Committee, has the responsibility for developing and implementing the laboratory safety and chemical hygiene plan, and thus ensures compliance with the regulatory requirements and maintains a safe work environment. Chemical Hygiene Officer shall:

1. Provide general chemical hygiene training.

2. Work with principal investigators to define the location of work areas where toxic substances and/or potential carcinogens will be used, and ensure that the inventory of these substance is properly maintained.

3. Monitor the procurement, use and disposal of chemicals used in laboratories.

4. Know the current legal requirements concerning regulated substances.

5. Maintain an up-to-date list of hazardous materials used or stored, and review it annually.

6. Develop and oversee implementation of the Chemical Hygiene Plan.

Principle Investigator(s) or project directors shall:

1. Ensure that all personnel including visiting scientists and students under his/her supervision have access to copies of this CHP and receive general chemical training from the chemical hygiene officer.

2. Ensure that all personnel under his/her supervision have been trained in safety procedures specific to their work assignment before beginning laboratory work.

3. Maintain an up-to date chemical inventory in his/her teaching and research labs.

4. Report accidents or incidents resulting from the project in accordance with University Policy.(http://www.nmu.edu/OccupationalSafety.htm )

5. Investigate the cause of accidents or incidents resulting from the project and report these to the department’s Chemical Hygiene Officer.

6. Review and update MSDS documents and postings.

7. Ensure that all materials associated with the project are properly labeled.

8. Ensure that cabinets, storage lockers and rooms are properly labeled to reflect the materials associated with the project.

Instructor/Teaching Assistant: will provide student training at the beginning of each lab in which hazardous chemicals are used. Specific safety instructions will be provided at the beginning of each class period. Students will be made aware of chemical health and safety hazards in classroom situations and will be provided with information and equipment to protect themselves from those hazards. In addition, Instructors/Teaching Assistants will report accidents or incidents resulting from lab activity to the Chemical Hygiene Officer and otherwise in accordance with University Policy.

Students are responsible for:

1. Attending required training sessions and following all standard operating procedures of working in the laboratory.

2. Wearing personal protective equipment as directed by the principal investigator or instructor.

3. Reporting to the teaching assistant, faculty member, or department chemical hygiene officer/laboratory supervisor any accidents that in the exposure to toxic chemical, and/or any action or condition that may exist that could result in an accident

1.4 LABORATORY AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL INFORMATION AND TRAINING

Laboratory authorized personnel must have access to information and training to ensure that they are apprised of the hazards of chemicals present in the work area. Such information must be provided at the time of a laboratory authorized person’s initial assignment to a work area where hazardous chemicals are present and prior to assignment involving new exposure situations. Laboratory authorized personnel shall receive periodic refresher information and training to ensure that they are aware of the risks of exposure to hazardous chemicals.

Each Department’s Chemical Hygiene Officer shall provide the refresher information and training for laboratory supervisors at intervals not to exceed one year or immediately whenever new potential hazards are present. Records of this training, including the names of the participants and the subjects covered, must be maintained by the department for a period of seven years. All such records must be sent to Public Safety as well. The department’s Chemical Hygiene Officer is responsible for ensuring that copies MSDS documents are sent to Public Safety as they become available in the department.

Information.

Information provided by department/Supervisors to laboratory authorized personnel must include:

1. The contents of the MIOSHA Hazardous Work in Laboratories standard.

2. The location and availability of the NMU CHP.

3. Signs and symptoms associated with exposures to hazardous chemicals used in the laboratory (available on Material Safety Data Sheets).

4. The location and availability of known reference materials on the hazards, safe handling, storage and disposal of hazardous chemicals found in the laboratory, including, but not limited to, Material Safety Data Sheets received from the supplier.

Method of Training. General training will be provided by the Chemical Hygiene Officer and may take the form of individual instruction, group seminars, audiovisual presentations, handout material, or any combination of the above. Site-specific training will be provided by supervisors or an appropriate designee.

General chemical hygiene training provided by the Chemical Hygiene Officer to laboratory authorized personnel will include:

1. General physical and health hazards of chemicals in the work area.

2. The measures laboratory authorized personnel can take to protect themselves from these hazards, including specific procedures the department has implemented to protect laboratory authorized personnel from exposure to hazardous chemicals, such as

a. appropriate work practices,

b. emergency procedures, and

c. personal protective equipment (PPE) including MIOSHA standards for use, inventory and cleaning

3. The applicable details of this CHP.

Site-specific training provided by Supervisors to laboratory authorized personnel will include:

1. Site-specific standard operating procedures including personal protective equipment (PPE)

2. Specific physical and health hazards of chemicals in the work area (available on Material Safety Data Sheets).

Supervisors are responsible for training laboratory authorized personnel and students under their supervision in all safety procedures specific to the laboratory authorized person’s work assignment before such work is initiated.

1.5 RECORD KEEPING

The department’s Chemical Hygiene Officer will retain the records on safety training of laboratory authorized personnel who attend the general chemical safety seminar provided by the Chemical Hygiene Officer. Copies of laboratory authorized person’s training records must be sent to Public Safety. It is required that records of specific laboratory training for individual laboratories be retained by the department for a period of seven years.

Accident records for laboratory authorized personnel shall be written and retained within the department for seven years. University Accident/Incident Report must be used and distributed according to policy.

2.0 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

The University has developed general standard operating procedures relevant to safety and health considerations when laboratory work involves the use of hazardous chemicals. Standard operating procedures must be provided to all affected laboratory authorized personnel.

2.1 GENERAL SAFETY PRINCIPLES

The following general guidelines have been established to minimize hazards and to maintain basic safety in the laboratory.

1. Examine the known hazards associated with the materials being used. Never assume all hazards have been identified. Carefully read the label before using an unfamiliar chemical. When appropriate, review the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for special handling information. Determine the potential hazards and use appropriate safety precautions before beginning any new operation.

2. Be familiar with the location of emergency equipment - fire alarms, fire extinguishers, emergency eyewash and shower stations and know the appropriate emergency response procedures.

3. Ensure fire extinguishers and pull stations are unobstructed and that eye wash and shower stations are tested and records kept.

4. Avoid distracting or startling other workers when they are handling hazardous chemicals.

5. Use equipment and hazardous chemicals only for their intended purposes.

6. Always be alert to unsafe conditions and actions and call attention to them so that corrective action can be taken as quickly as possible.

7. Wear eye and face protection when appropriate.

8. Always inspect equipment for leaks, tears and other damage before handling a hazardous chemical. This includes fume hoods, gloves, goggles, etc.

9. Follow MIOSHA Personal Protective Equipment and Lockout/Tag out Procedures/standards and corresponding University policies. http://www.nmu.edu/OccupationalSafety.htm

10. Do not taste or smell hazardous chemicals.

2.2 HEALTH AND HYGIENE

The following practices have been established to protect laboratory authorized personnel from health risks associated with the use of hazardous chemicals:

1. Avoid direct contact with any hazardous chemical. Know the types of protective equipment available and use the proper type for each job.

2. Confine long hair and loose clothing and always wear footwear which fully covers the feet.

3. Do not use your mouth to withdraw substances via a pipette.

4. Use appropriate safety equipment whenever exposure to gases, vapors or aerosols is suspected and ensure exhaust facilities are working properly.

5. Wash thoroughly with soap and water after handling chemicals, before leaving the laboratory and before eating or drinking.

6. Laboratory authorized personnel will be permitted to wear contact lenses when handling hazardous chemicals provided that the safety guidelines listed here are followed and that contact lenses are not banned by regulation or contraindicated by medical or industrial hygiene recommendations. If these guidelines cannot be adhered to, then contact lenses will be prohibited while handling hazardous chemicals. It is important to remember, in any event, that contact lenses are not eye protective devices, and wearing them does not reduce the requirement for eye and face protection. The following guidelines for contact lens use in a chemical environment must be observed:

1. Conduct an eye injury hazard evaluation in the workplace that includes an assessment of the following:

o Chemical exposures (as required by MIOSHA Standard Part 33)

o Contact lens wear

o Appropriate eye and face protection for contact lens wearers

The eye injury hazard evaluation should be conducted by a competent, qualified person such as a certified industrial hygienist, a certified safety professional, or a toxicologist.

Information from the hazard evaluation should be provided to the examining occupational health nurse or occupational medicine physician.

The chemical exposure assessment for all workers should include, at a minimum, an evaluation of the properties of the chemicals in use—including concentration, permissible exposure limits, known eye irritant/injury properties, form of chemical (powder, liquid, or vapor), and possible routes of exposure. The assessment for contact lens wearers should include a review of the available information about lens absorption and adsorption for the class of chemicals in use and an account of the injury experience for the employer or industry, if known.

2. Provide suitable eye and face protection for all workers exposed to eye injury hazards, regardless of contact lens wear. Wearing contact lenses does not appear to require enhanced eye and face protection. For chemical vapor, liquid, or caustic dust hazards, the minimum protection consists of well-fitting non-vented or indirectly vented goggles or full-face piece respirators. Close-fitting safety glasses with side protection provide limited chemical protection but do not prevent chemicals from bypassing the protection. Workers should wear face shields over other eye protection when needed for additional face protection; but they should not wear face shields instead of goggles or safety glasses—regardless of contact lens wear.

3. Establish a written policy documenting general safety requirements for wearing contact lenses, including the eye and face protection required and any contact lens wear restrictions by work location or task. In addition to providing the general training required by the OSHA personal protective equipment standard [29 CFR 1910.132], provide training in employer policies on contact lens use, chemical exposures that may affect contact lens wearers, and first aid for contact lens wearers with a chemical exposure.

4. Comply with current MIOSHA regulations and University policy on contact lens wear and eye and face protection.

5. Notify workers and visitors about any defined areas where contact lenses are restricted.

6. Identify to supervisors all contact lens wearers working in chemical environments to ensure that the proper hazard assessment is completed and the proper eye protection and first aid equipment are available.

7. Train medical and first aid personnel in the removal of contact lenses and have the appropriate equipment available.

8. In the event of a chemical exposure, begin eye irrigation immediately and remove contact lenses as soon as practical. Do not delay irrigation while waiting for contact lens removal.

9. Instruct workers who wear contact lenses to remove the lenses at the first signs of eye redness or irritation. Contact lenses should be removed only in a clean environment after the workers have thoroughly washed their hands. Evaluate continued lens wear with the worker and the prescribing ophthalmologist or optometrist. Encourage workers to routinely inspect their contact lenses for damage and/or replace them regularly.

10. Evaluate restrictions on contact lens wear on a case-by-case basis. Take into account the visual requirements of individual workers wearing contact lenses as recommended by a qualified ophthalmologist or optometrist.

These recommendations are for work with chemical hazards. They do not address hazards from heat, radiation, or high-dust or high-particulate environments.

7. Replace personal protective equipment as appropriate.

8. Laboratory authorized personnel shall be familiar with the symptoms of exposure for the chemicals with which they work and the precautions necessary to prevent exposure.

2.3 FOOD AND DRINK IN THE LABORATORY

The following statement is the accepted practice on food and drinks in laboratories and shall be followed at all times:

"There shall be no food, drink, smoking or applying cosmetics in laboratories which have radioactive materials, bio-hazardous materials or hazardous chemicals present. There shall be no storage, use or disposal of these 'consumable' items in laboratories (including refrigerators within laboratories). Rooms which are adjacent, but separated by floor to ceiling walls, and do not have any chemical, radioactive or bio-hazardous agents, present, may be used for food consumption, preparation, or applying cosmetics at the discretion of the project director responsible for the areas."

2.4 HOUSEKEEPING

Safety follows from good housekeeping practices. Use the following guidelines to maintain an orderly laboratory:

A. Keep work areas clean and uncluttered with chemicals and equipment. Clean up work areas upon completion of an operation or at the end of each work day, including floors.

B. Dispose of waste in accordance with the Northern Michigan University Hazardous Materials Management Plan.

C. A separate waste receptacle must be designated for non-contaminated glass.

D. Clean spills immediately and thoroughly, as per the guidelines established in section 4.0 of this document. Ensure a chemical spill kit is available and that laboratory authorized personnel know how to use it.

E. Do not block exits, emergency equipment or controls or use hallways and stairways as storage areas.

F. Assure hazardous chemicals are properly segregated into compatible categories.

G. “Sharps” require a proper storage container and a proper container for their disposal

2.5 TRANSPORTING OF CHEMICALS

When transporting chemicals outside the laboratory, precautions should be taken to avoid dropping or spilling chemicals.

1. Carry glass containers in specially designed bottle carriers or a leak resistant, unbreakable secondary container.

2. When transporting chemicals on a cart, use a cart that is suitable for the load and one that has high edges to contain leaks or spills. Cart and containers must be labeled

3. Avoid exposing passengers to risk on elevators.

2.6 UNATTENDED EXPERIMENTS AND WORKING ALONE

No one, (including Faculty/Staff) may work alone if the work involves the use or manipulation of hazardous materials, or if hazardous conditions may exist (e.g. high pressure, high voltage or vacuum systems). “Working Alone” means working out of sight or sound communications with another person for more than 5 minutes at a time. Overnight procedures involving high pressure, high voltage, or vacuum systems are only to be done when there is no other way of accomplishing this procedure and exposure to potential hazards are minimized. Overnight operations require the approval of the Chemical Hygiene Officer and Safety Director.

Student researchers (both graduate and undergraduate) may never work alone if working with hazardous chemicals or in a hazardous environment.

Laboratory operations involving hazardous substances are sometimes carried out continuously or overnight with no one present. It is the responsibility of the researcher to design these experiments so as to prevent the release of hazardous substances in the event of interruptions in utility services such as electricity, cooling water, and inert gas. Laboratory lights should be left on, and signs should be posted identifying the nature of the experiment and the hazardous substances in use. If appropriate, arrangements should be made for other workers to periodically inspect the operation. Information should be posted indicating how to contact the responsible individual in the event of an emergency.

This section of the policy applies to laboratory and field based work.

2.7 LABELING

All containers of hazardous chemicals must be labeled with the name of the chemical and the hazard(s), if not provided by the manufacturer. If a chemical has more than one hazard, it must be labeled with both hazards. For example, acetaldehyde is both a flammable and a carcinogen, and must be labeled appropriately. Additionally, the subsequent guidelines shall be followed:

2.7.1 Labeling Basics

a. For containers labeled by the manufacturer:

• Inspect the labeling on incoming containers.

• Replace damaged or semi-attached labels.

b. For transferred products or solutions labeled by the user:

• Label each chemical container with the chemical name and

hazard warning.

• Refer to the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for hazard warning.

2.7.2 Alternate Method for Labeling Multiple Small Containers

a. Legend Method:

•Label containers with abbreviated chemical name and a hazard warning.

•Provide a key in a visible location in the lab with the complete chemical name.

•Document that laboratory authorized personnel are trained on the labeling system.

b. Box or Tray Method:

•Put containers in a box or a tray.

•Label the tray with chemical name and hazard warning.

•If containers are removed from the box/tray they must be properly labeled or returned to the box or tray within the work-shift.

•Document that laboratory authorized personnel are trained on the labeling system.

2.7.3 Labeling Peroxide Forming Chemicals

Peroxidizable materials, when in the presence of oxygen and stored for long periods of time, or when exposed to sunlight, form unstable peroxides. These peroxides are friction and heat sensitive. They may explode if conditions allowed. Do not open containers with suspicious crystal liked solids found around the bottle cap.

Peroxidizable chemicals are listed in Appendix E and must be labeled with:

• Date Received

• Date Opened

• Date Tested (e.g., Iodide Test, Ferrous Thiocyanate Test, Peroxide Test Strips)

• Test Results

2.7.4 Consumer Products

Anything available over the counter to the general public is exempt from labeling requirements if it has already been labeled by the manufacturer. This includes consumer products such as cans of spray paint or turpentine. Container labels for over the counter materials must be maintained, and the container must be re-labeled if the original is missing or un-readable. MSDS documents for over the counter materials must be obtained and maintained according to the Hazardous Material Management policy.

2.7.5 Stationary Containers

Stationary process containers such as tanks may be identified with signs, placards, process sheets, batch tickets or other written materials instead of actually affixing labels to process containers. The sign or placard must convey the same information that a label would and be visible to authorized laboratory personnel throughout the work shift.

2.7.6 Portable Containers

Portable containers into which hazardous chemicals are transferred from labeled containers and which are intended to be under the use and control of the person who transferred it, within the work shift in which it was transferred, must have a temporary label identifying the chemical and its primary hazard affixed to the container.

2.8 PROCUREMENT, STORAGE, AND DISTRIBUTION OF CHEMICALS

Each research scientist is responsible for the proper procurement, storage, and distribution of hazardous chemicals used in his/her research activities. Hazardous chemicals required for research shall be obtained, stored, and dispensed in accordance with the Hazardous Materials Management plan and the guidelines outlined below.

2.8.1 Procurement of Hazardous Chemicals

Before a substance is ordered, information on proper handling, storage, and disposal must be known to those who will be involved. In particular, no substance may be ordered without having first obtained an MSDS for that material. No container will be accepted without an adequate identifying label.

Instructions for locating MSDS materials on line can be found here:

http://www.nmu.edu/msdsonline.htm

All departmentally based chemicals shall be ordered through a single point of control which may be

1. the stockroom manager or

2. the department’s Chemical Hygiene Officer.

All substances must be received in a central stockroom which shall be designated by the department’s Chemical Hygiene Officer.

2.8.2 Storage of Hazardous Chemicals

Hazardous chemicals shall be stored according to the manufacturer’s instructions as detailed on the product label and/or in the MSDS. Chemical storage containers and facilities shall be commensurate with the quantities and hazards of the chemicals involved (e.g., flammability, temperature sensitivity, and water reactivity). Stored chemicals shall be examined periodically at the direction of the Chemical Hygiene Officer to assure container and label integrity and to check for signs of deterioration. This examination shall take place at intervals not less than annually, and a report confirming the examination must be maintained in the department office and a copy sent to Public Safety.

Toxic substances shall be segregated in a vented location with adequate hazard markings. Quantities of solvents and other hazardous chemicals shall be kept to the minimum reasonably anticipated to be needed for the work being done.

2.8.3 Distribution of Hazardous Chemicals

Chemicals shall be transported in approved carts or in a secondary container. When chemicals are hand carried, the container shall be placed in an outside container or bucket. Transportation of hazardous chemicals in the passenger elevators should be kept to a minimum, and may not be attempted if the elevator is occupied by other passengers. All containers must be properly labeled.

2.8.4 Laboratory Storage

Amounts of hazardous chemicals permitted should be as small as practical. Storage on bench tops and in hoods is inadvisable. Exposure to heat or direct sunlight should be avoided. Periodic inventories should be conducted, with unneeded items discarded or returned to the storeroom/stockroom. This examination shall take place at intervals not less than annually, and a report confirming the examination must be maintained in the department office and a copy sent to Public Safety.

2.9 INVENTORY CONTROL

Federal and State law mandates that anyone using chemicals in their work must maintain a current inventory of what is in their work space, along with MSDS for all these chemicals. This inventory must be updated with department Chemical Hygiene Officer annually. In addition, the classes of chemicals that are stored in lab areas should be indicated as Flammable Chemicals, Corrosives, Carcinogens, Reactive Chemicals, Biological Agents, Radioactive Material or other. The inventory of these materials must be provided to Public Safety annually and within two weeks of the beginning of a new University fiscal year.`

2.10 STORAGE AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL WASTE

Hazardous wastes generated as a result of research and teaching laboratory activities must be disposed of in accordance with all Federal, State, and local regulations.

The following general principles will be observed:

1. Unlabeled containers of chemicals and solutions must undergo prompt disposal; if partially used, they should not be opened

2. Before a worker's employment in the laboratory ends, chemicals for which that person was responsible should be discarded or returned to storage.

3. Waste should be removed from laboratories to a central waste storage area at least once per week and from the central waste storage area at regular intervals.

4. Incineration in an environmentally acceptable manner is the most practical disposal method for combustible laboratory waste.

5. Indiscriminate disposal by pouring waste chemicals down the drain or adding them to mixed refuse for landfill burial is unacceptable.

6. Hoods may not be used as a means of disposal for volatile chemicals.

7. Disposal by recycling or chemical decontamination should be used when possible.

Each laboratory in which hazardous chemical waste is generated must have a designated satellite accumulation area (SAA). This area must be at or near the point where the waste is generated, and must be under the control of the generator at all times. Wastes may be brought to the stock room when the waste container is full. The stockroom manager will contact Public Safety to arrange for proper disposal of the waste.

The following management standards must be observed for all SAAs:

1. containers must be in good condition.

2. containers must be compatible with the waste

3. containers must be labeled with “Universal Waste” labels which identify the date of accumulation as well as the contents. “Universal Waste” labels can be obtained from Public Safety. It is good practice to label containers with both the contents and the “Hazardous Waste” designation to prevent the introduction of incompatible wastes into the same container.

4. containers are to remain securely closed at all times, except when adding or removing waste.

5. each SAA must be inspected regularly and not less frequently that annually, and the inspection results documented and retained in the department for seven years.

2.11 CHEMICALS DEVELOPED IN THE LABORATORY

The following requirements apply to chemical substances developed in the laboratory:

1. If the composition of the chemical substance which is produced exclusively for the laboratory's use is known, the Laboratory Director must determine if it is a hazardous chemical. This can be done by a literature search for similar substances. If the chemical is determined to be hazardous, the Laboratory Director must provide appropriate training to protect laboratory authorized personnel.

2. If the chemical produced is a product or a by-product whose composition is not known, the Laboratory Director must assume that the substance is hazardous and must comply with the requirements of the CHP.

3. If the chemical is produced for sale or use outside of the laboratory, the Laboratory Director must prepare an appropriate MSDS in accordance to the Michigan Right-to-Know Law.

3.0 SPECIFIC SAFETY PROCEDURES

3.1 THAT APPLY TO ALL CHEMICALS

(a) Accidents and spills:

Check MSDS for the appropriate emergency treatment. Unless otherwise indicated, follow these procedures:

Eye Contact: Promptly flush eyes with water for a prolonged period (15 minutes) and seek medical attention.

Ingestion: Encourage the victim to drink large amounts of water.

Skin Contact: Promptly flush the affected area with water and remove any contaminated clothing. If symptoms persist after washing, seek medical attention.

Clean-up. Promptly clean up spills, using appropriate protective apparel and equipment and proper disposal.

(b) Avoidance of "routine" exposure:

Develop and encourage safe habits; avoid unnecessary exposure to chemicals by any route.

Do not smell or taste chemicals. Vent apparatus which may discharge toxic chemicals (vacuum pumps, distillation columns, etc.) into local exhaust devices.

Inspect gloves and test glove boxes before use.

Do not allow release of toxic substances in cold rooms and warm rooms, since these have contained re-circulated atmospheres.

(c) Choice of chemicals: Use only those chemicals for which the quality of the available ventilation system is appropriate.

(d) Eating, smoking, etc.: Eating, drinking, smoking, gum chewing, or application of cosmetics in areas where laboratory chemicals are present is prohibited; wash hands before conducting these activities. Storage, handling or consumption of food or beverages in storage areas, refrigerators, glassware or utensils which are also used for laboratory operations is prohibited.

(e) Equipment and glassware: Handle and store laboratory glassware with care to avoid damage; do not use damaged glassware. Use extra care with Dewar flasks and other evacuated glass apparatus; shield or wrap them to contain chemicals and fragments should implosion occur. Use equipment only for its designed purpose.

(f) Exiting: Wash areas of exposed skin well before leaving the laboratory.

(g) Horseplay: Avoid practical jokes or other behavior which might confuse, startle or distract another worker.

(h) Mouth suction: Do not use mouth suction for pipeting or starting a siphon.

(i) Personal apparel: Confine long hair and loose clothing. Wear shoes at all times in the laboratory but do not wear sandals, perforated or open toed shoes.

(j) Personal housekeeping: Keep the work area clean and uncluttered, with chemicals and equipment being properly labeled and stored; clean up the work area on completion of an operation or at the end of each day.

(k) Personal protection: Personal Protective Equipment required will be determined by examination of the MSDS for the product/s being used. Assure that appropriate eye protection is worn by all persons, including visitors, where chemicals are stored or handled.

Wear appropriate gloves when the potential for contact with toxic materials exists; inspect the gloves before each use, wash them before removal, and replace them periodically.

Use appropriate respiratory equipment when air contaminant concentrations are not sufficiently restricted by engineering controls, inspecting the respirator before use. Those employees using respirators must follow the University policy of use of respirators. http://www.nmu.edu/OccupationalSafety.htm

Use any other protective and emergency apparel and equipment as appropriate.

Avoid use of contact lenses in the laboratory unless necessary; if they are used, inform supervisor so special precautions can be taken.

Remove laboratory coats immediately on significant contamination.

(l) Planning: Seek information and advice about hazards, plan appropriate protective procedures, and plan positioning of equipment before beginning any new operation. Ensure that all participants are aware of the requirements before beginning.

(m) Unattended operations: Leave lights on, place an appropriate sign on the door, and provide for containment of toxic substances in the event of failure of a utility service (such as cooling water) to an unattended operation.

(n) Use of hood: Use the hood for operations that might result in release of toxic chemical vapors or dust.

Use a hood or other local ventilation device when working with any appreciably volatile substance with a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of less than 50 ppm.

Confirm adequate hood performance before use; keep hood closed at all times except when adjustments within the hood are being made; keep materials stored in hoods to a minimum and do not allow them to block vents or air flow.

Leave the hood "on" when it is not in active use if toxic substances are stored in it or if it is uncertain whether adequate general laboratory ventilation will be maintained when it is "off".

(o) Vigilance: Be alert to unsafe conditions and see that they are corrected when detected.

(p) Waste disposal: Assure that the plan for each laboratory operation includes plans and training for waste disposal.

Deposit chemical waste in appropriately labeled receptacles and follow all other waste disposal procedures of the Chemical Hygiene Plan and Hazardous Material Management Policy.

Do not discharge to the sewer concentrated acids or bases; highly toxic, malodorous, or lachrymatory substances; or any substances which might interfere with the biological activity of waste water treatment plants, create fire or explosion hazards, cause structural damage or obstruct flow.

3.2 ALLERGENS AND EMBRYOTOXINS

(a) Allergens (examples: diazomethane, isocyanates, bichromates): Wear suitable gloves to prevent hand contact with allergens or substances of unknown allergenic activity.

(b) Embryotoxins (examples: organomercurials, lead compounds, formamide): If you are a woman of childbearing age, handle these substances only in a hood whose satisfactory performance has been confirmed, using appropriate protective apparel (especially gloves) to prevent skin contact.

Review each use of these materials with the research supervisor and review continuing uses annually or whenever a procedural change is made.

Store these substances, properly labeled, in an adequately ventilated area in an unbreakable secondary container. Notify supervisors of all incidents of exposure or spills; consult a qualified physician when appropriate after an exposure or a spill.

3.3 CHEMICALS OF MODERATE CHRONIC OR HIGH ACUTE TOXICITY

(a) Location: Use and store these substances only in areas of restricted access with special warning signs.

Always use a hood (previously evaluated to confirm adequate performance with a face velocity of at least 60 linear feet per minute) or other containment device for procedures which may result in the generation of aerosols or vapors containing the substance; trap released vapors to re-vent their discharge with the hood exhaust.

(b) Personal protection: Always avoid skin contact by use of gloves and long sleeves (and other protective apparel as appropriate). Always wash hands and arms immediately after working with these materials.

(c) Records: Maintain records of the amounts of these materials on hand, amounts used, and the names of the laboratory authorized personnel involved.

(d) Prevention of spills and accidents: Be prepared for accidents and spills.

Assure that at least 2 people are present at all times if a compound in use is highly toxic or of unknown toxicity.

Store breakable containers of these substances in chemically resistant trays; also work and mount apparatus above such trays or cover work and storage surfaces with removable, absorbent, plastic backed paper.

If a major spill occurs outside the hood, evacuate the area; assure that cleanup personnel wear suitable protective apparel and equipment.

(e) Waste: Thoroughly decontaminate or incinerate contaminated clothing or shoes. If possible, chemically decontaminate by chemical conversion.

Store contaminated waste in closed, suitably labeled, containers (for liquids, in glass or plastic bottles half-filled with vermiculite).

3.4 CHEMICALS OF HIGH CHRONIC TOXICITY

(Examples: dimethylmercury and nickel carbonyl, benzo-a-pyrene, N-nitrosodiethylamine, other human carcinogens or substances with high carcinogenic potency in animals.)

Further supplemental rules to be followed, in addition to those mentioned above, for work with substances of known high chronic toxicity (in quantities above a few milligrams to a few grams, depending on the substance).

(a) Access: Conduct all transfers and work with these substances in a "controlled area": a restricted access hood, glove box, or portion of a lab, designated for use of highly toxic substances, for which all people with access are aware of the substances being used and necessary precautions.

(b) Approvals: Prepare a plan for use and disposal of these materials and obtain the approval of the Chemical Hygiene Officer.

(c) Non-contamination/Decontamination: Protect vacuum pumps against contamination by scrubbers or HEPA filters and vent them into the hood. Decontaminate vacuum pumps or other contaminated equipment, including glassware, in the hood before removing them from the controlled area.

Decontaminate the controlled area before normal work is resumed there.

(d) Exiting: On leaving a controlled area, remove any protective apparel (placing it in an appropriate, labeled container) and thoroughly wash hands, forearms, face, and neck.

(e) Housekeeping: Use a wet mop or a vacuum cleaner equipped with a HEPA filter instead of dry sweeping if the toxic substance was a dry powder.

(f) Medical surveillance: If using toxicologically significant quantities of such a substance on a regular basis (e.g., 3 times per week), consult a qualified physician concerning desirability of regular medical surveillance.

(g) Records: Keep accurate records of the amounts of these substances stored and used, the dates of use, and names of users.

(h) Signs and labels: Assure that the controlled area is conspicuously marked with warning and restricted access signs and that all containers of these substances are appropriately labeled with identity and warning labels.

(i) Spills: Assure that contingency plans, equipment, and materials to minimize exposures of people and property in case of accident are available.

(j) Storage: Store containers of these chemicals only in a ventilated, limited access area in appropriately labeled, unbreakable, chemically resistant, secondary containers.

(k) Glove boxes: For a negative pressure glove box, ventilation rate must be at least two volume changes/hour and pressure at least 0.5 inches of water. For a positive pressure glove box, thoroughly check for leaks before each use. In either case, trap the exit gases or filter them through a HEPA filter and then release them into the hood.

(l) Waste: Use chemical decontamination whenever possible; ensure that containers of contaminated waste (including washings from contaminated flasks) are transferred from the controlled area in a secondary container under the supervision of authorized personnel.

3.5 ANIMAL WORK WITH CHEMICALS OF HIGH CHRONIC TOXICITY

(a) Access: For large scale studies, special facilities with restricted access are preferable.

(b) Administration of the toxic substance: When possible, administer the substance by injection or gavage instead of in the diet. If administration is in the diet, use a caging system under negative pressure or under laminar air flow directed toward HEPA filters.

(c) Aerosol suppression: Devise procedures which minimize formation and dispersal of contaminated aerosols, including those from food, urine, and feces (e.g., use HEPA filtered vacuum equipment for cleaning, moisten contaminated bedding before removal from the cage, mix diets in closed containers in a hood).

(d) Personal protection: When working in the animal room, wear plastic or rubber gloves, fully buttoned laboratory coat or jumpsuit and, if needed because of incomplete suppression of aerosols, other apparel and equipment (shoe and head coverings, respirator).

(e) Waste disposal: Dispose of contaminated animal tissues and excreta by incineration if the available incinerator can convert the contaminant to non-toxic products; otherwise, package the waste appropriately for burial in an EPA-approved site.

Supervisors must ensure that all laboratory procedures contain a written description of specific safety practices incorporating the applicable precautions described in this section. Laboratory authorized personnel should read and understand these practices before commencing a procedure.

See also the policy: Institutional Animal Care and Use: http://www.nmu.edu/graduate_studies/forms/iacuc_policy.pdf

3.6 PROCEDURES FOR PARTICULARLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE

The MSDSs for many of the chemicals used in the laboratory will state recommended limits or OSHA-mandated limits, or both, as guidelines for exposure. Typical limits are permissible exposure limits (PELs), threshold limit values (TLVs), and action levels. When such limits are stated, they will be used to assist the researcher and the Chemical Hygiene Officer in determining the safety precautions, control measures, and safety apparel that apply when working with a particular chemical.

Special Considerations. The MIOSHA Laboratory Standard requires that special precautions for additional laboratory authorized person protection be followed for the laboratory use of select carcinogens, reproductive toxicants and chemicals with a high degree of acute and chronic toxicity (defined in section 1.3). Following general hygiene standards should be observed when using select carcinogens, reproductive toxicants and chemicals with high degree of acute and chronic toxicity.

A. When a PEL or TLV is less that 50 ppm or 100 mg/m3, the user of the chemical must use it in a properly-functioning chemical exhaust hood. If none are available, no work should be performed using that chemical.

B. If a PEL, TLV, or comparable value is not available for a substance, the animal or human median inhalation lethal concentration (LC50) information will be assessed. If that value is less than 200 ppm or 2,000 mg/m3 (when administered continuously for one hour or less), then the chemical must be used within the confines of the properly functioning chemical exhaust hood.

C. Establish a Designated Area – Use and store materials only in designated areas: a restricted access hood, glove box, or portion of a lab, designated for use of highly toxic substances. Assure that all personnel with access are aware of necessary safety precautions.

D. Only those persons trained to work with inimical chemicals will work with those chemicals in a designated area or transport them to or from the approved storage areas. All such personnel will:

a. Use the smallest amount of chemical that is consistent with the requirements of the work to be done.

b. Appropriately decontaminate a designated area when work is completed.

Inimical chemicals are members of one or more of these four categories:

§ select carcinogens,

§ teratogens or other reproductive toxins,

§ acutely toxic chemicals, and

§ chemicals whose toxic properties are unknown.

Select carcinogens are materials defined as such in 29CFR1910.1450 or described as such on the applicable MSDS.

Teratogens and/or reproductive toxins are chemicals described as such on the applicable MSDS.

Acute toxic chemicals are materials for which the LD50 data lead to a description in the applicable MSDS as “highly” or “acutely” toxic.

Chemicals of unknown toxicity are ones for which there is no known statistically significant study to establish toxicity.

E. Store all inimical chemicals in locked and enclosed spaces.

F. Because the decontamination of jewelry may be difficult or impossible, do not wear jewelry when working in designated areas.

G. Wear long-sleeved fully-buttoned disposable laboratory coats and gloves known to resist permeation by the chemicals when working in a designated area. Such lab coats and gloves are to be worn only in the designated area while working with inimical chemicals, and are to be removed and bagged for proper disposal at the end of the work session. Do not wear lab coats or gloves into any offices, public areas, or areas approved for food or beverage storage, preparation, or consumption.

H. Any items that have become contaminated with hazardous substances must be disposed of in accordance with applicable OSHA, MIOSHA and University Policy.

3.7 PROCEDURES FOR FLAMMABLE CHEMICALS

In general, the flammability of a chemical is determined by its flash point, the lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off a vapor in sufficient concentration to ignite under certain controlled conditions.

1. Chemicals with a flash point below 100 ¡F (37.8 ¡C) will be considered flammable.

2. Flammable chemicals should be used only in chemical fume hoods and away from sources of ignition.

3. Store flammable chemicals away from an ignition source. The preferred storage location is in a flammable storage cabinet or the cabinet under a hood.

4. Laboratories should limit the amount of flammable liquids to less than 10 gallons per 100 square feet of lab space.

3.8 PROCEDURES FOR REACTIVE CHEMICALS

Reactivity information is sometimes given in the MSDS and on product labels.

A. A reactive chemical is one that:

a. is described as such in the MSDS,

b. is ranked by the NFPA as 3 or 4 for reactivity,

c. is identified by the DOT as:

- an oxidizer,

- an organic peroxide, or

- an explosive, Class A, B, or C,

d. is known or found to be reactive with other substances.

B. Handle reactive chemicals with all proper safety precautions, including segregation in storage and prohibition on mixing even small quantities with other chemicals without prior approval of the supervisor, and the use of appropriate PPE and precautions.

3.9 PROCEDURES FOR CORROSIVE CHEMICALS

Corrosivity, allergenic, and sensitizer information is sometimes given in the MSDS and on product labels.

1. A corrosive chemical is one that:

* has a pH greater than 12.5 or less than 2.0, or

* is known or found to cause severe irritation and burns to living tissue.

2. Handle corrosive chemicals with all proper safety precautions, including wearing both safety goggles and a face shield when required, compatible gloves tested for the absence of pin holes and known to be resistant to permeation or penetration, and a laboratory apron or laboratory coat.

3. Store concentrated acids and bases separately in acid or base resistant trays or catch basins.

4. Always add acid to water when diluting.

5. In case of contact: Flush the affected area with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes, remove contaminates clothing, and seek medical attention.

Examples of common laboratory corrosives are

1. HCl

2. HNO3

3. H2SO4

4. CH3COOH (in the glacial form)

5. NaOH

6. KOH

3.10 PROCEDURES FOR COMPRESSED GASES IN PORTABLE CYLINDERS

Compressed gases present the worker with both chemical and physical hazards. Precautions are necessary for handling the various types of compressed gases, the cylinders that contain them, the regulators that control their flow, the piping used to confine them during flow, and the vessels in which they are ultimately used.

A compressed gas is one that:

a. is so defined by OSHA or by DOT.

b. is contained in an approved compressed gas container

The following apply to the use of compressed gases:

A. Conspicuous signs should be posted in flammable compressed gas storage areas which identify the substance(s) and the appropriate precautions.

B. Gas cylinders (whether empty or full) shall always be transported on wheeled carts and secured with restraining straps or chains. Gas cylinders shall never be dragged, rolled, or slid across the floor.

C. Cylinders with regulators must be individually secured. Only cylinders with valve protection caps securely in place may be safely gang-chained (chained in groups).

D. When storing or moving a cylinder, have the valve protection cap securely in place to protect the stem.

E. Cylinders must be secured in an upright position at all times. Use suitable racks, straps, chains, or stands to support cylinders against an immovable object, such as a bench or a wall, during use and storage. Do not allow cylinders to fall or lean against one another.

F. Always wear goggles or safety glasses with side shields when handling compressed gases.

G. Always use appropriate gauges, fittings, and materials compatible with the particular gas being handled.

H. Oxygen containers must be stored separately from other pressurized containers of combustible gases.

3.11 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL HAZARDS

Use of radioactive materials at NMU is strictly controlled. Contact the Chemical Hygiene Officer if you plan to use radioactive materials.

3.12 BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL HAZARDS

Use of biological materials at or above Bio-safety Level 2 at NMU is strictly controlled. Contact the Chemical Hygiene Officer if you plan to use biological materials at or above Bio-safety-Level 2. See also (http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/bmbl4/bmbl4s3.htm)

4.0 EMERGENCY / MEDICAL PROCEDURES

4.1 BASIC STEPS FOR EMERGENCY AND SPILL RESPONSE

Releases of hazardous substances that pose a significant threat to health and safety or that, require an emergency response regardless of the circumstances surrounding the release or the mitigating factors, is defined as an emergency situation. The following definitions designate an emergency situation:

1. The situation is unclear to the person causing or discovering the spill.

2. The release requires evacuation of persons.

3. The release involves or poses a threat of

A. Fire, suspected fire, explosion or other imminent danger

B. Conditions that are Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH)

C. High levels of exposure to toxic substances.

4. The person(s) in the work area is uncertain they can handle the severity of the hazard with the personal protective equipment (PPE) and response equipment that has been provided and/or the exposure limit could be exceeded.

Conversely, releases that do not pose significant safety or health hazards to the person(s) in the immediate vicinity or to the person(s) cleaning the releases, do not have the potential to become emergencies within a short time frame and are not emergency situations. The following situations ARE NOT emergency situations:

1. The person causing or discovering the release understands the properties and can make an informed decision for containment and cleanup.

2. The release can be appropriately cleaned up by the lab personnel using authorized (certified) spill kits.

3. The materials are limited in quantity, exposure potential, or toxicity and present minor safety or health hazards to persons in the immediate work area or to those assigned to clean up the activity.

4.1.1 Emergency Situation - Fire. The following steps are basic protocol for handling a fire or fire-related emergency situation in the laboratory:

1. Evacuate the laboratory

2. Pull the fire alarm on the way out of the room or building

3. Call 911 from a safe location

4. Notify Public Safety

4.1.2 Emergency Situation – Spill. If the spill is of high toxicity or flammability or you are unsure of how to proceed or it is more than one liter, execute the following:

1. Isolate the spill area and close doors to room

2. Evacuate and pull the fire alarm

3. Call 911, give location and nature of spill

4. Await the arrival of emergency personnel

Attend to victims for a body splash:

1. Remove person(s) from spill area to fresh air only if attempt to rescue victim(s) does not present a danger to the rescuers.

2. Remove contaminated clothing while under an emergency shower.

3. Flood affected area with cold water for at least 15 minutes or longer if pain persists.

4. Wash skin with mild soap and water - do not use neutralizing chemicals, unguents, creams or lotions.

5. Dial 911 and advise Public Safety of the chemical(s) involved.

Attend to victims for an eye splash:

1. Remove victim(s) from spill area to fresh air only if attempt to rescue victim(s) does not present a danger to the rescuers.

2. Lead the victim(s) immediately to an emergency eye wash facility.

3. Hold eye lids open.

4. Flush eyes for at least 15 minutes or longer if pain persists.

5. Contact emergency response personnel and assure they know the chemical(s) involved.

For large spills, contact the safety officer for spill cleanup, instructions or assistance.

4.1.3 Spill Kits. Ready access to a chemical spill kit is required in laboratories that work with hazardous chemicals. Minimally, such a kit should contain:

1. splash resistant goggles

2. chemical resistant gloves

3. plastic bags

4. multi-chemical sorbent (enough for 8 liter spill) scooper

Some sorbents are chemically specific. The best sorbents are those which can be used to clean up all types of chemical spills. Check absorbents in spill kits for their absorbency range. Each laboratory's spill kit should be kept in a readily accessible location and each laboratory authorized person should be trained on how to use the spill kit.

4.1.4 Non-Emergency Situation - Spill. If the spill is less than one liter and the chemical involved is of low toxicity and a low flammable hazard, handle it in the following manner:

If there are questions about proper spill response techniques, contact Public Safety 227-2151.

1. Locate the spill kit.

2. Choose the proper protective equipment:

* Always wear gloves and protective eye wear

* Use additional protective equipment such as an apron, coveralls, or boots

* Use a fitted respirator if there is an inhalation hazard above the permissible exposure limit. The University policy on use of respirators must be followed in this instance.

3. Confine or contain the spill.

For non-reactive spills:

A. Cover liquid spills with spill kit absorbent and scoop into a plastic disposal bag.

B. Sweep solid materials into a dust pan and place in a sealed container.

C. Dispose of waste as normal trash as long as substance is non-volatile and non-hazardous.

For reactive or potentially reactive spills:

A. Cover liquid spill with spill kit absorbent and scoop into an appropriate disposal container.

B. Wet mop dry substances to avoid spreading hazardous dust, provided it is non-water reactive.

C. If the spilled chemical is a volatile solvent, transfer the disposal bag to a hood for evaporation of the solvent.

D. Follow the NMU Hazardous Waste Disposal Guide for disposal.

Subsequent to cleanup, a report must be submitted to the Chemical Hygiene Officer and Public Safety indicating the cause of the spill and the corrective steps that will be implemented to prevent a similar spill in the future.

4.1.5 Power Outages. If emergency lighting and fire alarms are not operable, evacuate the building after the following steps have been taken:

A. Place lids on all open containers of volatile chemicals

B. Lower the sash on chemical fume hoods

C. Shut down all equipment (leave cooling water and purge gases on as necessary)

D. Turn off ignition sources

E. Secure or isolate reactions that are underway (boiling liquid on a hot plate, distillations)

F. Close fire doors

G. Take your books, coats, purse/wallet, keys, etc.

H. Lock outside door to lab

In anticipation of possible power outages, do the following:

A. Have a flashlight or other emergency lighting conveniently located

B. Make sure that all emergency contact numbers on the door are accurate and updated

4.2 INJURY AND ILLNESS

For medical treatment, affected laboratory authorized personnel must seek care from one of the approved medical care facilities. The supervisor or instructor must ensure the appropriate injury report forms are completed and submitted to Public Safety within 24 hours. The form can be obtained from department office.

If you have any questions regarding injury and illness procedures, contact your Chemical Hygiene Officer, or the University Safety Director.

First Aid Kits. First aid kits are not recommended except for remote operations where emergency care is not readily available. A first aid kit must be maintained for work in remote locations with essential supplies at all times.

A. Do not dispense or administer any medications, including aspirin.

B. Do not put any ointments or creams on wounds or burns. Use cool water.

The MSDS contains specific first aid information for a given chemical.

For specific first aid information, contact your supervisor, the Health Center at 227-2355 or NMU Public Safety at 227-2152.

4.3 EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS, MEDICAL CONSULTATION AND EXAMINATIONS

Suspected Exposures to Toxic Substances

There may be times when laboratory authorized personnel or supervisors suspect that a person has been exposed to a hazardous chemical to a degree and in a manner that might have harmed the victim. If the circumstances suggest a reasonable suspicion of exposure, the victim is entitled to a medical consultation by a licensed physician and, if so determined in the consultation, also to a medical examination by a licensed physician at no cost and with no loss of workday time attributed to the laboratory authorized person.

Criteria for Reasonable Suspicion of Exposure

A. It is the policy of the University to promptly investigate all incidents in which there is even a remote possibility of a person’s overexposure to a toxic substance. This investigation shall be conducted jointly by the Chemical Hygiene Officer, a physician and Public Safety.

B. Events or circumstances that might reasonably constitute an overexposure include:

a. A hazardous chemical leaked, spilled, or otherwise rapidly released in an uncontrolled manner.

b. A laboratory authorized person who had direct skin, eye, or inhalation contact with a hazardous chemical.

c. A laboratory authorized person who manifested symptoms, such as headache, rash, nausea, coughing, tearing, irritation or redness of eyes, irritation of nose or throat, dizziness, loss of motor dexterity or judgment, etc., and

- some or all of the symptoms disappeared when the person was removed from the exposure area and breathed fresh air, and

- the symptoms reappeared soon after the employee resumed work with the chemicals.

d. Two or more persons in the same laboratory display similar symptoms or complaints.

Exposures

All complaints and their disposition, no matter what the ultimate disposition may be, must be documented. If no further assessment of the event is deemed necessary, the reason for the decision should be included in the documentation. If the decision is to investigate, a formal exposure assessment will be initiated by the Director of Public Safety. All records pertaining to the complaint or subsequent investigation must be retained in the department for seven years and copies provided to Public Safety.

Exposure Assessment

In case of emergency, exposure assessments are conducted after the victim has been treated.

Unless circumstances suggest other or additional steps, these actions constitute an exposure assessment:

1. Interview the complainant and the victim, if not the same person.

2. List the essential information about the circumstances of the complaint, including:

- the chemical under suspicion

- other chemicals used by the victim

- all chemicals being used by others in the immediate area

- other chemicals stored in that area

- symptoms exhibited or claimed by the victim

- how these symptoms compare to symptoms stated in the MSDS, or another reliable data source, for each of the identified chemicals

- if control measures, such as PPE and hoods, were properly used

- if any air sampling or monitoring device was in place. If so, were the measurements obtained from these devices consistent with other information?

3. Monitor or sample the air in the area for suspect chemicals.

4. Determine whether the present control measures and safety procedures are adequate.

Notification of Monitoring Results

Within 15 working days of receipt of any monitoring results, notify laboratory authorized person of those results.

Medical Consultation and Examination

The details of medical consultations and examinations are determined by the physician.

The purpose of a medical consultation is to determine whether a medical examination is warranted. When the results of an exposure assessment suggest or confirm that a employee was overexposed to a hazardous chemical, the laboratory authorized person should obtain medical consultation from, or under the direct supervision of, a licensed physician.

When warranted, laboratory authorized personnel also should receive a medical examination from, or under the direct supervision of, a licensed physician who is experienced in treating victims of chemical overexposure. The medical professional should also be knowledgeable about which tests or procedures are appropriate to determine if there has been an overexposure.

These provisions apply to medical consultations and examinations:

A. The University shall provide all laboratory authorized personnel who work with hazardous chemicals an opportunity to receive medical consultation and examination when:

a. The laboratory authorized person develops signs or symptoms associated with a hazardous chemical to which the laboratory authorized person may have been exposed in the laboratory.

b. Monitoring, routine or otherwise, suggests that there could have been an exposure above the action level, or PEL if there is no action level, for a chemical for which a substance-specific standard has been established.

c. There is a spill, leak, or other uncontrolled release of a hazardous chemical.

B. The physician shall be provided with:

a. The MSDS of the hazardous chemical(s) to which the laboratory authorized person may have been exposed.

b. The conditions of the exposure.

c. The signs and symptoms of exposure the victim is experiencing, if any.

C. The physician shall furnish the following, in written form, to the Chemical Hygiene Officer:

a. Recommendations for follow-up, if determined to be pertinent.

b. A record of the results of the consultation, and if applicable, of the examination and any tests that were conducted.

c. Conclusions concerning any other medical condition noted that could put the laboratory authorized person at increased risk.

A statement that the laboratory authorized person has been informed both of the results of the consultation or examination and of any medical condition that may require further examination or treatment.

d. These written statements and records should not reveal specific findings that are not related to an occupational exposure.

D. All memos, notes, and reports related to a complaint of actual or possible exposure to hazardous chemicals are to be maintained as part of the record by the department for a period of seven years and by the physician as allowed by applicable policy. Copies of all such documentation must be provided to Public Safety.

E. Laboratory authorized personnel shall be notified of the results of any medical consultation or examination with regard to any medical condition that exists or might exist as a result of overexposure to a hazardous chemical.

5.0 CONTROL MEASURES AND EQUIPMENT

5.1 SIGNS AND INFORMATION

Prominent signs and labels shall be posted that list:

(a) Telephone numbers of emergency personnel/facilities, supervisors, and laboratory workers;

(b) Identity labels, showing contents of containers (including waste receptacles) and associated hazards;

(c) Location signs for safety showers, eyewash stations, other safety and first aid equipment, exits and areas where food and beverage consumption and storage are permitted; and

(d) Warnings at areas or equipment where special or unusual hazards exist.

5.1.1 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs). A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a document containing chemical hazard identification and safe handling information and is prepared in accordance with the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard and the Michigan Right-to-Know law.

Chemical manufacturers and distributors must provide the purchasers of hazardous chemicals an appropriate MSDS for each hazardous chemical/product purchased. The Michigan Right-to-Know law requires that units and/or project directors keep MSDSs in a systematic and consistent manner.

Instructions for locating MSDS materials on line can be found here:

http://www.nmu.edu/msdsonline.htm

Laboratories will contain MSDSs.

Each unit must post a Michigan Right-to-Know Law poster, which indicates the location of all MSDSs for hazardous chemicals used in the lab.

The Public Safety Office is a central repository for MSDSs. If you wish to review a MSDS, contact your Chemical Hygiene Officer, instructor or Public Safety.

If information from an MSDS is needed in case of an emergency, call the Public Safety at 227-2151 or dial 911.

5.1.2 Generic Signs. Every laboratory shall have the following signs visibly posted:

1. The Michigan Right-to-Know law poster, listing the location of MSDSs for all hazardous chemicals used in the laboratory.

2. Emergency contact numbers (two individuals who will be expected to respond to an emergency) shall be posted on the external doorway to the lab. These names and numbers shall be updated when personnel change. In case of an emergency, responders need this information to contact knowledgeable personnel about specific laboratory hazards.

3. If a laboratory has 10 gallons or more of a flammable liquid, the main doorway to the lab shall have a flammable liquid sticker visibly posted on it. This is an aid to fire response personnel.

5.1.3 Restricted Access And Designated Areas. Facilities containing certain hazards must have warning signs posted at the designated area of the laboratory where the hazard exists, and at the entranceway to the laboratory. Any areas placarded as such are restricted access, which shall be controlled by the Chemical Hygiene Officer, and have certain standards regarding training and use by laboratory authorized personnel. Such hazards include:

• MIOSHA Class A carcinogens

• Biological agents that require Biosafety Level 2 *

• Radioisotopes*

*Contact the Chemical Hygiene Officer for requirements on these items.

5.1.4 Storage Areas. Chemicals must be stored according to compatibility (see Appendix C), as designated by hazard classes. Public Safety must have MSDS documents on file before storing or using hazardous chemicals. Particularly hazardous chemicals should be stored and handled with extreme care. When ordering chemicals that are unfamiliar, review the MSDS before purchase so that use and storage guidelines are understood. Assure that the following areas are labeled and chemicals are stored appropriately:

1. Carcinogens

2. Corrosives

3. Flammable Liquids

4. Flammable Solids

5. Oxidizers

6. Perchloric Acid

7. Biosafety Level 2 or higher

Additionally, storage areas for biohazardous agents and radioisotopes should be appropriately labeled. Please contact the Chemical Hygiene Officer for information.

5.2 CONTROL MEASURES

1. The Laboratory Supervisor must implement control measures to reduce laboratory authorized persons’ exposure to hazardous chemicals. The four types of control measures are:

A. Administrative Controls: methods of controlling laboratory authorized person’s exposures to contaminants by job rotation, work assignment or time periods away from contaminant. Examples include Standard Operating Procedures, Chemical Hygiene Plans and Safety Manuals.

B. Engineering Controls: methods of controlling laboratory authorized persons exposures by modifying the source or reducing the quantity of contaminants released into the work environment. Examples include fume hoods and biosafety cabinets.

C. Personal Protective Equipment: personal safety equipment designed for secondary laboratory authorized persons protection from hazardous chemicals. Examples include gloves and lab coats.

Note: MIOSHA R 325.51105 regarding air contaminants, states that engineering controls and administrative controls shall first be determined and implemented when feasible. When such controls are not feasible to achieve full compliance, protective equipment or any other protective measures shall be used to keep the exposure of laboratory authorized personnel to air contaminants within the limits prescribed in the rule.

D. Inventory Control: Federal law mandates that anyone using chemicals in their work must maintain a current inventory of what is in their work space, along with MSDS for these chemicals. This inventory must be updated with the department Chemical Hygiene Officer annually.

2. MIOSHA requires control measures when the following circumstances are met:

A. Whenever laboratory authorized personnel use hazardous chemicals.

B. Whenever laboratory authorized persons’ exposures exceed the action level (or, in the absence of an action level, the Permissible Exposure Limit, the Published Exposure Limit or the Threshold Limit Value).

C. Upon addition of new chemicals or changes in procedures. Other situations should be dealt with on a case-by-case basis.

3. The following general control measures are recommended for use in most situations requiring the use of hazardous chemicals:

A. Use the following primary methods for detecting exposures:

i. Determine the source of exposure.

ii. Determine the path the contaminant followed to reach the laboratory authorized persons.

iii. Determine the laboratory authorized persons' work pattern and use of personal protective equipment.

iv. Change one or more of the above pathways to reduce or eliminate exposure.

B. Substitute less harmful chemicals for more harmful chemicals whenever possible.

C. Change or alter processes to minimize exposure.

D. Isolate or enclose a process or work operation to reduce the number of laboratory authorized personnel exposed (for example, use a fume hood).

E. Use wet methods to reduce the generation of dust.

F. Use local exhaust ventilation (hoods) at points of generation or dispersion of contaminants and use dilution (general) ventilation to reduce air contaminants.

G. Practice good housekeeping procedures to reduce unnecessary exposures.

H. Use training and education as primary administrative controls for reducing exposures.

I. Use special control methods such as shielding and continuous monitoring devices to

control exposures in special situations.

5.3 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT

Maintaining a safe laboratory environment is the responsibility of the Project Director, but all laboratory authorized personnel play a role in observing safety guidelines. Personal protective devices and safety equipment must be provided to all laboratory authorized personnel under the appropriate circumstances and laboratory authorized personnel have the responsibility of properly using such equipment.

The MSDS will provide some information on the personal protective equipment and safety procedures recommended for a given chemical, but it may not provide sufficient information concerning the specific type of safety equipment required (for example, it may say "use gloves" but not list the best glove to use).

MIOSHA has adopted the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) consensus standards for eye protection and emergency shower and eyewash facilities.

5.3.1 Personal Protective Equipment

Eye and Face Protection. Eye protection must be made available to all laboratory authorized personnel or visitors to laboratories where chemicals are used and stored. Protective eye and face equipment must be used where there is a reasonable probability of injury from hazardous chemicals that can be prevented from such equipment. The minimum acceptable requirements are for hardened glass or plastic safety spectacles. The Laboratory Supervisor should establish the level of eye protection needed per laboratory activity based on the guidelines below.

Eye and Face Protection: General Description

All eye protective devices must be stamped with "Z87" by the manufacturer if they meet ANSI standards. If the eye protection is not marked, it may not be the most effective protection available.

1. Safety glasses with side shields offer minimal protection against flying fragments, chips, particles, sand and dirt. When a splash hazard exists, other protective eye equipment shall be worn.

2. Safety goggles (impact goggles) offer adequate protection against flying particles. These shall be worn when working with glassware under reduced or elevated pressure or with drill presses or other similar conditions.

3. Chemical splash goggles (acid goggles) have indirect venting for splash proof sides, which provide adequate protection against splashes. Chemical splash goggles offer the best eye protection from chemical splashes. Impact goggles must not be worn when danger of a splash exists.

4. Face shields protect the face and neck from flying particles and splashes. Always wear additional eye protection under face shields. Ultra-violet light face shields must be worn when working over UV light sources.

5.3.2 Selecting Appropriate Eye and Face Protection in Laboratories

Safety Glasses

Required when: An impact hazard exists or when working with low hazard chemicals, or when a low probability of splash exists.

Examples:

• Pipeting

• Handling closed bottle of injurious chemical

• Mixing solutions

• Opening centrifuge tubes

Chemical Splash Goggles

Required when: Working with smaller amounts of corrosive or injurious chemicals, or when a reasonable probability of splash exists.

Examples:

• Pouring acid out of a 1 pint bottle

• Pouring methylene chloride from a 1 liter bottle

• Working with liquids under pressure

Face Shield and Chemical Splash Goggles

Required when: Working with larger quantities of corrosive chemicals or a high

probability of eye and face injury exists.

Examples:

• Working with an acid bath

• Pouring 4 liters of acid into a container

• Handling highly reactive chemicals that may spatter

*Note: Ordinary prescription glasses do not provide adequate protection against eye injury. Eye protection equipment must be ANSI Z87 approved.

Protection of Skin and Body. Skin and body protection involves the use of protective clothing to protect individuals from chemical exposure. Determine clothing needed for the chemical being used, as protective garments are not equally effective for every hazardous chemical. Some chemicals will permeate a garment quickly, whereas others will not.

Protect exposed skin surfaces when there is a reasonable anticipation of a splash. Never wear open-toed shoes, sandals, shorts, etc. when working with injurious or corrosive chemicals.

The basic and most effective forms of protection are gloves and lab coats. Even when there is minimal danger of skin contact with an extremely hazardous substance, lab coats, coveralls, aprons, or protective suits should be utilized. These garments should not leave the work site.

Exposures to strong acids and acid gases, organic chemicals and strong oxidizing agents, carcinogens, and mutagens require the use of specialized protective equipment that prevents skin contamination. Protective equipment must be utilized, such as rubber gloves, aprons, boots and protective suits.

5.3.3 Safety Equipment

Safety Showers. Safety showers provide an immediate water drench of an affected person. MIOSHA has adopted the following ANSI standards for location, design and maintenance of safety showers:

1. Showers shall be located within 25 feet of areas where chemicals with a pH of ≤ 2.0 or ≥ 12.5 are used.

2. Showers shall be located within 100 feet of areas where chemicals with a pH of > 2 and < 4, or ≥ 9 and < 12.5 are used.

3. The location of the shower should be clearly marked, well lighted and free from obstacles, closed doorways or turns.

Safety showers must be tested, checked, flushed and documented at intervals not to exceed one year and whenever a modification to the shower has been made. (Note: the ANSI standards require testing of eye wash stations and safety showers weekly.)

Eye Wash Facilities. Eye wash facilities are required in all laboratories where injurious or corrosive chemicals are used or stored, and are subject to the same proximity requirements as safety showers. MIOSHA has adopted the following ANSI standards for location, design and maintenance of emergency eyewash facilities:

1. Those affected must have both hands free to hold open the eye to ensure an effective wash behind the lids. This means providing eye wash facilities that are operated by a quick release system that simultaneously drenches both eyes.

2. Eye wash facilities must provide the minimum of a 15 minute water supply at no less than 0.4 gallons per minute.

3. Eye wash facilities should be flushed out once per week by Public Safety. A required log documenting flushes will be provided by Public Safety Personnel. The log must be saved annually in the department office and a copy sent to Public Safety.

5.4 VENTILATION CONTROLS

Ventilation controls are intended to minimize laboratory authorized persons’ exposure to hazardous chemicals by removing air contaminants from the work site. There are two main types of ventilation controls:

1. General (Dilution) Exhaust: a room or building-wide system which brings in air from outside and ventilates within. Laboratory air must be continually replaced, preventing the increase of air concentration of toxic substances during the work day. General exhaust systems are not recommended for the use of most hazardous chemicals.

2. Local Exhaust: a ventilated, enclosed work space intended to capture, contain and exhaust harmful or dangerous fumes, vapors and particulate matter generated by procedures conducted with hazardous chemicals.

To determine ventilation requirements, assess the MSDS. Some MSDS terminology, as listed below, may indicate a need for special ventilation considerations beyond general exhaust ventilation:

•use with adequate ventilation

•avoid vapor inhalation

•use in a fume hood

•provide local exhaust ventilation

Proper Use of Local Ventilation Systems: Once a local ventilation system is installed in a work area, it must be used properly to be effective. For use of hazardous chemicals warranting local ventilation controls, the following guidelines must be observed:

1. Conduct all operations which may generate air contaminants at or above the appropriate PEL or TLV inside a fume hood.

2. Keep all apparatus at least 6 inches back from the face of the hood and keep the slots in the hood baffle free of obstruction by apparatus or containers. Large equipment should be elevated at least two inches off the base of the fume hood, to allow for the passage of air underneath the apparatus.

3. Do not use the hood as a waste disposal mechanism except for very small quantities of volatile materials.

4. Keep the hood sash closed at all times except when the hood is in use.

5. Minimize foot traffic and other forms of potential air disturbances past the face of the hood.

6. Do not have sources of ignition inside the hood when flammable liquids or gases are present.

7. Use sash as a safety shield when boiling liquids or conducting an experiment with reactive chemicals.

8. Periodically check the air flow in the hood using a continuous monitoring device or another source of visible air flow indicator. If air flow has changed, contact Plant Operation for repair. The system must be checked prior to each use to assure it is operating. Never work with hazardous chemicals if the required ventilation system is not working.

The Plant Operation performs hood inspections annually. After an inspection, hoods are passed or failed for use based on the following criteria:

1. The face velocity of air being drawn into the hood at maximum sash height is measured quantitatively in feet per minute (fpm). One measurement is taken per square foot of face space. Hoods must have an average face velocity of 60-150 fpm, depending on their design, with 100 fpm being the ideal average face velocity.

2. The turbulence of the air is measured qualitatively by releasing smoke from a smoke tube. The smoke must be captured by the hood, with a minimum of turbulence. If the exhaust system does not pass the face velocity test and/or has excessive turbulence, it will be posted as "failed" by the inspector. The P.I. must contact Physical Plant to have the system repaired before hazardous chemicals can be used in the hood.

If the exhaust system does pass, the inspector will post the date of inspection and will mark the hood to indicate proper sash position for optimum hood performance. The hood sash should be set at this point for procedures which could generate toxic aerosols, gases or vapors. In general, the sash height should be set at a level where the operator is shielded to some degree from any explosions or violent reactions which could occur and where optimum air flow dynamics are achieved. If a fume hood has no markings regarding sash height or inspection dates, contact Plant Operations to arrange for an inspection.

All records pertaining to the maintenance of fume hood must be kept in the department for a period of seven years with copies provided to Public Safety.

APPENDIX A

NMU CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN

AWARENESS CERTIFICATION

The Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administration (MIOSHA) requires that all laboratory authorized personnel be made aware of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) at their place of employment.

By signing the certification form at a training session, you acknowledge that you are aware of the NMU CHP and the policies and procedures applicable to the MIOSHA Laboratory Standard and have attended a training session on the applicable details of the NMU CHP provided by the Chemical Hygiene Officer. Your supervisor will provide additional laboratory-specific training*.

The NMU Chemical Safety and Chemical Hygiene Plan Awareness Training Sign-up Sheet

PLEASE PRINT

NAME: _____________________________________

DEPT: ___________________________________

IF AN EMPLOYEE, EMPLOYMENT START DATE: __________________

TODAY'S DATE: _____________

NMU IN#: _____________________

SUPERVISOR: ____________________________________

SIGNATURE: _____________________________________

Please have all information available at the training session so that the certification form may be completely filled out.

* All laboratory-specific training must be documented and maintained by the laboratory supervisor, and a copy provided to Public Safety.

More information on NTP carcinogens can be found at: http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov

APPENDIX B

NMU Chemical Safety Laboratory Checklist

Location:____________________________ Chemical Hygiene Officer: ____________________

Department:__________________________ Inspection Date: ____________________________

PI: _________________________________ Inspected by: ______________________________

GENERAL

Emergency phone numbers are posted on the laboratory door.

Warning signs are posted on doors.

Right-to-Know law bulletin is posted within department.

All personnel know how to obtain MSDSs.

All personnel have received Lab Specific Training.

All personnel have received NMU Lab Safety Training.

Lab coats are available.

Lab coats are worn.

Chemical protective gloves are available.

Reusable gloves are in good condition.

Safety glasses/goggles are available.

Safety glasses/goggles are worn.

An eyewash fountain is present and unobstructed.

An emergency shower is present and unobstructed.

Food and beverage are not stored or used in lab.

Aisles are uncluttered and without a tripping hazard.

Chemical spill kits are available.

Non-contaminated sharp objects labeled, stored in puncture-proof containers.

Fume hoods have current ORCBS inspection sticker.

All exit ways are free and unobstructed.

Fire extinguishers are available and unobstructed.

Fire extinguishers have DPPS tag and are sealed.

Current inventory of chemicals is available.

Chemical Hygiene Plan is available

Laboratory SOP’s are available

CHEMICAL STORAGE AND HANDLING

Gas cylinders are properly secured.

No leaking containers are present.

All chemical containers are properly labeled.

Chemicals are stored according to compatibility.

Peroxide forming reagents are dated when opened.

Peroxide forming reagents are disposed of or tested after expiration date.

Flammable and corrosive storage areas are labeled.

Flammables are kept away from sources of heat, ignition, flames, etc.

Corrosive materials are stored low to the ground.

Carcinogen storage area(s) is labeled.

Chemicals in the open are kept to a minimum.

Flammable/Combustible liquids do not exceed NFPA storage limits.

Flammable/Combustible liquid total volume is not greater than 10 gallons.

Flammable gases are not present.

Poisonous gases are not present.

CHEMICAL WASTE

Hazardous waste containers are labeled and have closed lids.

Hazardous waste tags are complete.

Hazardous wastes are stored properly.

APPENDIX C

DEFINITIONS OF PHYSICAL HAZARDS

Below is an exact copy of the MIOSHA definition of Physical Hazards from Appendix B from Part 431 of the MIOSHA Occupational Health Standards as amended July 28, 2003.

Following are the definitions of physical hazards as used in R 325.70103(l). All definitions except that for pyrophoric are those used in the comparable Federal OSHA standard 29 CFR 1910.1450.

(a) "Combustible liquid" means any liquid having a flashpoint at or above 100oF (37.8oC), but below 200oF (93.3oC), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 200oF (93.3oC), or higher, the total volume of which make up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.

(b) "Compressed gas" means:

(i) A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container, an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 70oF (21.1oC); or

(ii) A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container, an absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi at 130oF (54.4oC) regardless of the pressure at 70oF (21.1oC); or

(iii) A liquid having a vapor pressure exceeding 40 psi at 100oF (37.8oC) as determined by ASTM D-323-72.

(c) "Explosive" means a chemical that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas, and heat when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, or high temperature.

(d) "Flammable" means a chemical that falls into one of the following categories:

(i) "Aerosol, flammable" means an aerosol that, when tested by the method described in 16 CFR 1500.45, yields a flame protection exceeding 18 inches at full valve opening, or a flashback (a flame extending back to the valve) at any degree of valve opening:

(ii) "Gas, flammable" means:

(A) A gas that, at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a flammable mixture with air at a concentration of 13 percent by volume or less; or

(B) A gas that, at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a range of flammable mixtures with air wider than 12 percent by volume, regardless of the lower limit.

(iii) "Liquid, flammable" means any liquid having a flashpoint below 100oF (37.8oC), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 100oF (37.8oC) or higher, the total of which make up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.

(iv) "Solid, flammable" means a solid, other than a blasting agent or explosive as defined in §1910.109(a), that is liable to cause fire through friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which can be ignited readily and when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious hazard. A chemical shall be considered to be a flammable solid if, when tested by the method described in 16 CFR 1500.44, it ignites and burns with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than one-tenth of an inch per second along its major axis.

(e) "Flashpoint" means the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off a vapor in sufficient concentration to ignite when tested as follows:

(i) Tagliabue Closed Tester (See American National Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by Tag Closed Tester, Z11.24-1979 (ASTM D 56-79))--for liquids with a viscosity of less than 45 Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS) at 100oF (37.8oC), that do not contain suspended solids and do not have a tendency to form a surface film under test; or

(ii) Pensky-Martens Closed Tester (see American National Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Tester, Z11.7-1979 (ASTM D 93-79))--for liquids with a viscosity equal to or greater than 45 SUS at 100oF (37.8oC), or that contain suspended solids, or that have a tendency to form a surface film under test; or

(iii) Setaflash Closed Tester (see American National Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by Setaflash Closed Tester (ASTM D 3278-78)).

Organic peroxides, which undergo autoaccelerating thermal decomposition, are excluded from any of the flashpoint determination methods specified above.

(f) "Organic peroxide" means an organic compound that contains the bivalent -O-O- structure and which may be considered to be a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen atoms has been replaced by an organic radical.

(g) "Oxidizer" means a chemical other than a blasting agent or explosive as defined in §1910.109(a), that initiates or promotes combustion in other materials, thereby causing fire either of itself or through the release of oxygen or other gases.

(h) "Pyrophoric" means any liquid or solid that will ignite spontaneously in air at about 130oF (54.4oC).

(i) "Unstable (reactive)" means a chemical which is the pure state, or as produced or transported, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or will become self-reactive under conditions of shock, pressure, or temperature.

(j) "Water-reactive" means a chemical that reacts with water to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard.

Appendix D

MIOSHA

Occupational Health Standards

Hazardous Work in Laboratories

BSR-STD-1212 (07/03) 13 Pages

DEPARTMENT OF CONSUMER & INDUSTRY SERVICES

DIRECTOR’S OFFICE

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH STANDARDS

Filed with the Secretary of State on January 9, 1992 (as amended July 28, 2003)

These rules take effect 7 days after filing with the Secretary of State

(By authority conferred on the director of the department of consumer and industry services

by sections 14 and 24 of 1974 PA 154 and Executive Reorganization Orders Nos. 1996-1

and 1996-2, MCL 408.1014, 408.1024, 330.3101, and 445.2001)

R 325.70101, R 325.70102, R 325.70103, R 325.70104, R 325.70105, R 325.70106, R 325.70107, R 325.70108,

R 325.70109, R 325.70110, R 325.70111, R 325.70113, and R 325.70114 of the Michigan Administrative Code

are amended and R 325.70112 of the Michigan Administrative Code is rescinded as follows:

Visit our website at: www.michigan.gov/mioshastandards

PART 431. HAZARDOUS WORK IN LABORATORIES

R 325.70101 Scope; effective date of subrule (2)..........................................1

R 325.70102 Application..................................................................................2

R 325.70103 Definitions...................................................................................2

R 325.70104 Permissible exposure limits......................................................3

R 325.70105 Exposure monitoring..................................................................3

R 325.70106 Chemical hygiene plan...............................................................3

R 325.70107 Employee information and training...........................................4

R 325.70108 Medical surveillance................................................................... 4

R 325.70109 Hazard identification...................................................................5

R 325.70110 Use of respiratory protection.....................................................5

R 325.70111 Recordkeeping.............................................................................5

R 325.70112 Rescinded....................................................................................5

R 325.70113 Appendices..................................................................................5

R 325.70114 Availability of rules and appendices; permission to copy.......5

APPENDIX A--CHEMICAL HYGIENE IN LABORATORIES..............................6

APPENDIX B--DEFINITIONS OF PHYSICAL HAZARDS................................11

APPENDIX C--DEFINITION OF SELECT CARCINOGEN...............................12

APPENDIX D--REFERENCES..........................................................................12

R 325.70101 Scope; effective date of subrule (2)

Rule 1. (1) These rules set forth the requirements for laboratory use of hazardous chemicals. Subjects to which these rules apply include all of the following:

(a) Exposure limits.

(b) Exposure monitoring.

(c) Written chemical hygiene plan.

(d) Employee information and training.

(e) Medical surveillance.

(f) Hazard identification.

(g) Use of respiratory protection.

(h) Recordkeeping.

(2) These rules, where they apply as specified in R 325.70102, supersede all Michigan occupational safety and health act (MIOSHA) occupational health standards that govern the use of specific chemical substances, except as provided in R 325.70104, R 325.70105, and R 325.70108. Also, where they apply, these rules supersede the requirements of the occupational safety and health administration (OSHA) hazard communication standard, being 29 C.F.R. §1910.1200, which is incorporated by section 14a of 1974 PA 154, MCL 408.1014a. This subrule takes effect when an employer has developed and implemented a written chemical hygiene plan as prescribed by R 325.70106.

(3) All occupational health standards that do not deal with a specific chemical substance apply to laboratory operations as do any occupational safety standards administered by the Michigan department of consumer and industry services. Such non-chemical substance standards that apply to laboratory operations include all of the following rules:

(a) Occupational noise exposure, Part 380., R 325.60101 et seq.

(b) Ionizing radiation, Part 381., O.H. 2410 et seq.

(c) Nonionizing radiation, Part 382., R 325.60701 et seq.

(d) Ventilation control, Part 520., O.H. 3101 et seq.

(e) Permit-required confined spaces, Part 490., R 325.63001 et seq.

(f) Respiratory protection, Part 451., R 325.60051 et seq.

(g) Illumination, Part 478., R 325.47801 et seq.

(h) Sanitation, Part 474., O.H. 4201 et seq.

(i) Medical services and first aid, Part 472., R 325.47201 et seq.

(j) Employee medical records and trade secrets, Part 470., R 325.3451 et seq.

R 325.70102 Application

Rule 2.

(1) These rules apply to all employers who have an employee or employees involved in the laboratory use of hazardous chemicals as defined in R 325.70103.

(2) These rules do not apply to either of the following:

(a) Work involving chemicals that do not meet the conditions of the definition of laboratory use of hazardous chemicals. In such cases, the employer shall comply with all relevant specific substance standards even if such use occurs in a laboratory type setting.

(b) Work involving the laboratory use of hazardous chemicals that does not have the potential for employee exposure.

R 325.70103 Definitions

Rule 3. As used in these rules:

(a) “Action level” means a concentration which is designated in established MIOSHA health standards for a specific substance, calculated as an 8-hour, time-weighted average, and which initiates certain required activities, such as exposure monitoring and medical surveillance.

(b) “Chemical hygiene officer” means an employee who is designated by the employer, and who is qualified by training or experience, to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provisions of the chemical hygiene plan. This definition is not intended to place limitations on the position description or job classification that the designated individual shall hold within the employer's organizational structure.

(c) “Chemical hygiene plan” means a written program which is developed and implemented by the employer, which sets forth procedures, equipment, personal protective equipment, and work practices that are capable of protecting employees from the health hazards presented by the hazardous chemicals used in a particular workplace, and which is in compliance with the requirements of R 325.70106.

(d) “Director” means the director of the Michigan department of consumer and industry services or his or her designee.

(e) “Emergency” means any occurrence, such as equipment failure, the rupture of containers, or the failure of control equipment, that results in an uncontrolled release of a hazardous chemical into the workplace.

(f) “Employee” means a person who is assigned to work in a laboratory workplace and who may be exposed to hazardous chemicals in the course of his or her assignments.

(g) “Hazardous chemical” means a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence, based on at least 1 study that is conducted in accordance with established scientific principles, that acute or chronic health effects may occur in employees who are exposed to the chemical. These health effects include those that result from exposure to chemicals which are any of the following:

(i) Carcinogens.

(ii) Toxic or highly toxic agents.

(iii) Reproductive toxins.

(iv) Irritants.

(v) Corrosives.

(vi) Sensitizers.

(vii) Hepatotoxins.

(viii)Nephrotoxins.

(ix) Neurotoxins.

(x) Agents that act on the hematopoietic systems.

(xi) Agents that damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes.

Appendices A and B of the OSHA hazard communications standard, being 29 C.F.R. §1910.1200 and referenced in R 325.70101(2), provide further guidance in defining the scope of health hazards and determining whether or not a chemical is to be considered hazardous for purposes of these rules.

(h) “Laboratory” means a facility where the laboratory use of hazardous chemicals occurs. It is a workplace where relatively small quantities of hazardous chemicals are used on a nonproduction basis.

(i) “Laboratory-type hood” means a work chamber which is used in a laboratory, which is enclosed on 5 sides and has a moveable sash or fixed partial closure on the remaining side, which is constructed and maintained to draw air from the laboratory and prevent or minimize the escape of air contaminants into the laboratory, and which allows chemical manipulations to be conducted in the enclosure without inserting any portion of the employee's body other than hands and arms. The term includes walk-in hoods with adjustable sashes if the sashes are adjusted during use so that the airflow and the exhaust of air contaminants are not compromised and so that employees do not work inside the enclosure during the release of airborne hazardous chemicals.

(j) “Laboratory use of hazardous chemicals” means the handling or use of such chemicals in which all of the following conditions are met:

(i) Chemical manipulations are carried out on a laboratory scale.

(ii) Multiple chemical procedures or chemicals are used.

(iii) The procedures that are involved are not part of production process, nor in any way simulate a production process.

(iv) Protective laboratory practices and equipment are available and in common use to minimize the potential for employee exposure to hazardous chemicals.

(k) “Medical consultation” means a consultation that takes place between an employee and a licensed physician to determine what medical examinations or procedures, if any, are appropriate.

(l) “Physical hazard” means a chemical for which there is scientifically valid evidence that it is any of the following:

(i) A combustible liquid.

(ii) A compressed gas.

(iii) Explosive.

(iv) Flammable.

(v) An organic peroxide.

(vi) An oxidizer.

(vii) Pyrophoric.

(viii)Unstable (reactive).

(ix) Water-reactive.

These terms are defined in appendix B of these rules.

(m) “Production” means the manufacturing processes that use hazardous chemicals and result in a product.

(n) “Protective laboratory practices and equipment” means those laboratory procedures, practices, and equipment that are accepted by laboratory health and safety experts as effective, or that the employer can show to be effective, in minimizing the potential for employee exposure to hazardous chemicals.

(o) “Reproductive toxins” means chemicals that affect the reproductive capabilities, including chromosomal damage (mutations) and effects on fetuses (teratogenesis).

(p) “Select carcinogen” means any substance that meets 1 or more of the criteria set forth in the definition of select carcinogen in paragraph (b) of OSHA standard 29 C.F.R. §1910.1450, which is adopted herein by reference. The cited provision of 29 C.F.R. §1910.1450 is available from the Michigan Department of Consumer and Industry Services, Standards Division, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, Michigan 48909, at no cost, or from the U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA, 801 S. Waverly, Suite 306, Lansing, Michigan 48917, at no cost. The cited definition is printed as appendix C to these rules.

R 325.70104 Permissible exposure limits

Rule 4. For laboratory uses of MIOSHA-regulated substances, an employer shall assure that laboratory employees' exposures to such substances do not exceed the permissible exposure limits specified in MIOSHA occupational health standards.

R 325.70105 Exposure monitoring

Rule 5. (1) An employer shall measure an employee's exposure to any substance that is regulated by a standard that requires monitoring if there is reason to believe that exposure levels for that substance routinely exceed the action level or, in the absence of an action level, the permissible exposure limits (PEL).

(2) If the initial monitoring prescribed by subrule (1) of this rule discloses employee exposure over the action level or, in the absence of an action level, the PEL, an employer shall comply with the exposure monitoring provisions of the relevant standard.

(3) Monitoring may be terminated in accordance with the relevant standard.

(4) An employer shall, within 15 working days after the receipt of any monitoring results, notify an employee of these results, in writing, either individually or by posting the results in an appropriate location that is accessible to employees.

R 325.70106 Chemical hygiene plan

Rule 6. (1) Where hazardous chemicals as defined by these rules are used in the workplace, an employer shall develop and carry out the provisions of a written chemical hygiene plan that provides for both of the following:

(a) Protecting employees from health hazards that are associated with hazardous chemicals in that laboratory.

(b) Keeping exposures below the limits specified in R 325.70104.

(2) The chemical hygiene plan shall be readily available to employees, employee representatives, and, upon request, to the director.

(3) The chemical hygiene plan shall include each of the following elements and shall indicate specific measures that the employer will take to ensure laboratory employee protection:

(a) Standard operating procedures relevant to safety and health considerations to be followed when laboratory work involves the use of hazardous chemicals.

(b) Criteria that the employer will use to determine and implement control measures to reduce employee exposure to hazardous chemicals, including engineering controls, the use of personal protective equipment, and hygiene practices. Particular attention shall be given to the selection of control measures for chemicals that are known to be particularly hazardous.

(c) A requirement that laboratory-type hoods and other protective equipment are functioning properly and the specific measures that shall be taken to ensure the proper and adequate performance of such equipment.

(d) Provisions for employee information and training as prescribed in R 325.70107.

(e) The circumstances under which a particular laboratory operation, procedure, or activity shall require prior approval from the employer or the employer's designee before implementation.

(f) Provisions for medical consultation and medical examinations in accordance with R 325.70108.

(g) Designation of personnel who are responsible for implementing the chemical hygiene plan, including the assignment of a chemical hygiene officer and, if appropriate, establishment of a chemical hygiene committee.

(h) Provisions for additional employee protection for work with particularly hazardous substances, such as select carcinogens, reproductive toxins, and substances that have a high degree of acute or chronic toxicity. Specific consideration shall be given to the following provisions, which shall be included where appropriate:

(i) The establishment of a designated area or areas that indicate the physical limits of exposure to particularly hazardous substances.

(ii) The use of containment devices, such as laboratory-type hoods or glove boxes.

(iii) Procedures for the safe removal of contaminated waste.

(iv) Decontamination procedures.

(4) An employer shall review and evaluate the effectiveness of the chemical hygiene plan at least annually and update it as necessary.

(5) Appendix A to these rules is nonmandatory, but provides guidance to assist employers in the development of a chemical hygiene plan.

R 325.70107 Employee information and training

Rule 7. (1) An employer shall provide employees with information and training to ensure that they are apprised of and understand the hazards of chemicals present in their work areas.

(2) Such information shall be provided at the time of an employee's initial assignment to a work area where hazardous chemicals are present and before assignments that involve new exposure situations. Refresher information and training shall be provided by the employer to ensure that an employee is aware of the risks of exposure to hazardous chemicals.

(3) Employees shall be informed of all of the following:

(a) The contents of these rules and appendices, which shall be made available to employees.

(b) The location and availability of the employer's chemical hygiene plan.

(c) The permissible exposure limits for MIOSHA-regulated substances or the recommended exposure limits for other hazardous chemicals if there are no applicable MIOSHA rules.

(d) Signs and symptoms associated with exposures to hazardous chemicals that are used in the laboratory.

(e) The location and availability of known reference material on the hazards, safe handling, storage, and disposal of hazardous chemicals found in the laboratory, including material safety data sheets (MSDS) received from a chemical supplier.

(4) Employee training shall include all of the following:

(a) Methods and observations that may be used to detect the presence or release of a hazardous chemical, such as monitoring conducted by the employer, continuous monitoring devices, and the visual appearance or odor of hazardous chemicals when being released.

(b) The physical and health hazards of chemicals in the work environment.

(c) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from health hazards, including specific procedures that the employer has implemented to protect employees from exposure to hazardous chemicals, such as appropriate work practices, emergency procedures, and personal protective equipment to be used.

(5) The employee shall be trained about the applicable details of the employer's written chemical hygiene plan.

R 325.70108 Medical surveillance

Rule 8. (1) An employer shall provide all employees who work with hazardous chemicals an opportunity to receive the following medical attention, including any follow-up examinations which the examining physician determines to be necessary:

(a) When an employee develops signs or symptoms that are associated with a hazardous chemical to which the employee may have been exposed in the laboratory, the employee shall be provided an opportunity to receive an appropriate medical examination.

(b) If exposure monitoring reveals an exposure level that is routinely above the action level or, in the absence of an action level, the PEL for a MIOSHA-regulated substance for which there are exposure monitoring and medical surveillance requirements, medical surveillance shall be established for the affected employee as prescribed by the particular standard.

(c) When an event takes place in the work areas, such as a spill, leak, explosion, or other occurrence that results in the likelihood of a hazardous exposure, the affected employee shall be provided an opportunity for a medical consultation. Such consultation shall be for the purpose of determining the need for a medical examination.

(2) All medical examinations and consultations shall be performed by or under the direct supervision of a licensed physician who is familiar with the general health effects of hazardous chemicals and sources of specific information on such effects and shall be provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay, and at a reasonable time and place.

(3) An employer shall provide all of the following information to the physician:

(a) The identity of the hazardous chemical or chemicals to which the employee may have been exposed.

(b) A description of the conditions under which the exposure occurred, including quantitative exposure data, if available.

(c) A description of the signs and symptoms of exposure that the employee is experiencing, if any.

(4) For examination or consultation that is required under this rule, an employer shall obtain a written opinion from the examining physician. The opinion shall include all of the following:

(a) Any recommendation for further medical follow-up.

(b) The results of the medical examination and any associated tests.

(c) Any medical condition revealed in the course of the examination which may place the employee at increased risk as a result of exposure to a hazardous chemical that is found in the workplace.

(d) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the consultation or medical examination and any medical condition that may require further examination or treatment.

(5) The written opinion shall not reveal specific findings of diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure.

R 325.70109 Hazard identification

Rule 9. (1) With respect to labels and material safety data sheets (MSDS) for hazardous chemicals, both of the following provisions apply:

(a) Employers shall ensure that labels on incoming containers of hazardous chemicals are not removed or defaced.

(b) Employers shall maintain any MSDS that are received with incoming shipments of hazardous chemicals and ensure that MSDS are readily accessible to laboratory employees.

(2) All of the following provisions shall apply to chemical substances that are developed in the laboratory:

(a) If the composition of the chemical substance that is produced exclusively for the laboratory's use is known, an employer shall determine if it is a hazardous chemical. If the chemical is determined to be hazardous, the employer shall provide appropriate training as required by R 325.70107.

(b) If the chemical produced is a by-product of unknown composition, an employer shall assume that the substance is hazardous and shall implement the provisions of R 325.70106.

(c) If the chemical substance is produced for another user outside of a laboratory, an employer shall comply with the OSHA hazard communication standard, being 29 C.F.R. §1910.1200, which is referenced in R 325.70101.

R 325.70110 Use of respiratory protection

Rule 10. If, after appropriate application of feasible engineering and work practice controls, the use of respirators is necessary to maintain exposure below permissible exposure limits, the employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, the proper respiratory protection equipment. Respirators shall be selected and used in accordance with the requirements of respiratory protection, Part 451., R 325.60051 et seq. The use of respirators by employees is also covered by University Policy which is a mandatory requirement. See xxx(add link here)

R 325.70111 Recordkeeping

Rule 11. (1) An employer shall establish and maintain, for each employee, an accurate record of any measurements taken to monitor employee exposures and any medical consultation and examinations, including tests or written opinions required by these rules.

(2) An employer shall assure that such records are kept, transferred, and made available in accordance with the provisions of employee medical records and trade secrets, Part 470., R 325.3451 et seq., and are protected from unauthorized disclosure.

R 325.70112 Rescinded

R 325.70113 Appendices

Rule 13. Appendices A, B, C, and D to these rules are informational only and are not intended to create any additional obligations or requirements not otherwise imposed by these rules or to detract from any established obligations or requirements.

R 325.70114 Availability of rules and appendices; permission to copy

Rule 14. (1) A copy of these rules and appendices are available at no cost from the Michigan Department of Consumer and Industry Services, Standards Division, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, Michigan 48909.

(2) Permission to copy any of these documents in full is granted by the director.

APPENDICES TO MIOSHA STANDARD

HAZARDOUS WORK IN LABORATORIES

R 325.70101-R 325.70114

The following appendices (A-D) are provided as non-mandatory guidelines and information to assist employers and employees to understand and comply with provisions of the standard. Appendix A is similar to the comparable appendix to 29 CFR §1910.1450 which is the Federal OSHA standard from which these rules were derived.

APPENDIX A--CHEMICAL HYGIENE IN LABORATORIES

The material in this appendix outlines concerns and recommendations for effectively dealing with chemical hazards in the laboratory environment. Naturally, not all items are appropriate for all laboratories. In most situations a study of this appendix and the provisions of Rule 6(3) will be sufficient to enable an effective chemical hygiene plan to be written.

The following table indicates the part of this appendix which are most pertinent to each of the subdivisions of Subrule (3) of Rule 6.

Subdivision of Rule 6(3)

Relevant Appendix A Section

(a) SOP for working with hazardous chemicals

C., D., E.

(b) Control measures

D.

(c) Laboratory fume hoods

C. 4. (b)

(d) Information and training

D. 10.

(e) Approval of operations

E. 2. (b), E. 4. (b)

(f) Medical consultation/exams

D. 5., E. 4. (f)

(g) Chemical hygiene officer

B.

(h) Special precautions

E. 2., 3., 4.

A. General Principles for Work with Laboratory Chemicals

1. It is prudent to minimize all chemical exposures. Because few laboratory chemicals are without hazards, general precautions for handling all laboratory chemicals should be adopted, rather than specific guidelines for particular chemicals. Skin contact with chemicals should be avoided as a cardinal rule.

2. Avoid underestimation of risk. Even for substances of no known significant hazard, exposure should be minimized; for work with substances which present special hazards, special precautions should be taken. One should assume that any mixture will be more toxic than its most toxic component and that all substances of unknown toxicity are toxic.

3. Provide adequate ventilation. The best way to prevent exposure to airborne substances is to prevent their escape into the working atmosphere by use of hoods and other ventilation devices.

4. Institute a chemical hygiene program. A mandatory chemical hygiene program designed to minimize exposures is needed; it should be a regular, continuing effort, not merely a standby or short-term activity. Its recommendations should be followed in academic teaching laboratories as well as by full-time laboratory workers.

5. Observe the PELs, TLVs. The Permissible Exposure Limits of OSHA and the Threshold Limit Values of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists should not be exceeded.

B. Chemical Hygiene Responsibilities

Responsibility for chemical hygiene rests at all levels including the:

1. Chief executive officer, who has ultimate responsibility for chemical hygiene within the institution and must, with other administrators, provide continuing support for institutional chemical hygiene.

2. Supervisor of the department or other administrative unit, who is responsible for chemical hygiene in that unit.

3. Chemical hygiene officer(s), whose appointment is essential and who must:

(a) Work with administrators and other employees to develop and implement appropriate chemical hygiene policies and practices;

(b) Monitor procurement, use, and disposal of chemicals used in the lab;

(c) See that appropriate audits are maintained;

(d) Help project directors develop precautions and adequate facilities;

(e) Know the current legal requirements concerning regulated substances; and

(f) Seek ways to improve the chemical hygiene program.

4. Laboratory supervisor, who has overall responsibility for chemical hygiene in the laboratory including responsibility to:

(a) Ensure that workers know and follow the chemical hygiene rules, that protective equipment is available and in working order, and that appropriate training has been provided;

(b) Provide regular, formal chemical hygiene and housekeeping inspections including routine inspections of emergency equipment;

(c) Know the current legal requirements concerning regulated substances;

(d) Determine the required levels of protective apparel and equipment; and

(e) Ensure that facilities and training for use of any material being ordered are adequate.

5. Project director or director of other specific operation, who has primary responsibility for chemical hygiene procedures for that operation.

7

6. Laboratory worker, who is responsible for:

(a) Planning and conducting each operation in accordance with the institutional chemical hygiene procedures; and

(b) Developing good personal chemical hygiene habits.

C. The Laboratory Facility

1. Design. The laboratory facility should have:

(a) An appropriate general ventilation system (see C.4. below) with air intakes and exhausts located so as to avoid intake of contaminated air;

(b) Adequate, well-ventilated stockrooms/ storerooms;

(c) Laboratory hoods and sinks;

(d) Other safety equipment including eyewash fountains and drench showers; and

(e) Arrangements for waste disposal.

2. Maintenance. Chemical-hygiene-related equipment (hoods, incinerator, etc.) should undergo continuing appraisal and be modified if inadequate.

3. Usage. The work conducted and its scale must be appropriate to the physical facilities available and, especially, to the quality of ventilation.

4. Ventilation

(a) General laboratory ventilation. This system should: Provide a source of air for breathing and for input to local ventilation devices; it should not be relied on for protection from toxic substances released into the laboratory; ensure that laboratory air is continually replaced, preventing increase of air concentrations of toxic substances during the working day; direct air flow into the laboratory from non-laboratory areas and out to the exterior of the building.

(b) Hoods. A laboratory hood with 2.5 linear feet of hood space per person should be provided for every two workers if they spend most of their time working with chemicals; each hood should have a continuous monitoring device to allow convenient confirmation of adequate hood performance before use. If this is not possible, work with substances of unknown toxicity should be avoided or other types of local ventilation devices should be provided.

(c) Other local ventilation devices. Ventilated storage cabinets, canopy hoods, snorkels, etc. should be provided as needed. Each canopy hood and snorkel should have a separate exhaust duct.

(d) Special ventilation areas. Exhaust air from glove boxes and isolation rooms should be passed through scrubbers or other treatment before release into the regular exhaust system. Cold rooms and warm rooms should have provisions for rapid escape and for escape in the event of electrical failure.

(e) Modifications. Any alteration of the ventilation system should be made only if thorough testing indicates that worker protection from airborne toxic substances will continue to be adequate.

(f) Performance. Rate: 4-12 room air changes/hour is normally adequate general ventilation if local exhaust systems such as hoods are used as the primary method of control.

(g) Quality. General air flow should not be turbulent and should be relatively uniform throughout the laboratory, with no high velocity or static areas; airflow into and within the hood should not be excessively turbulent; hood face velocity should be adequate (typically 60-100 lfm).

(h) Evaluation. Quality and quantity of ventilation should be evaluated on installation, regularly monitored (at least every 3 months), and reevaluated whenever a change in local ventilation devices is made.

D. Components of the Chemical Hygiene Plan

1. Basic Rules and Procedures

(Recommendations for these are given in section E, below)

2. Chemical Procurement, Distribution, and Storage

(a) Procurement. Before a substance is received, information on proper handling, storage, and disposal should be known to those who will be involved. No container should be accepted without an adequate identifying label. Preferably, all substances should be received in a central location.

(b) Stockrooms/storerooms. Toxic substances should be segregated in a well-identified area with local exhaust ventilation. Chemicals which are highly toxic or other chemicals whose containers have been opened should be in unbreakable secondary containers. Stored chemicals should be examined periodically (at least annually) for replacement, deterioration, and container integrity.

Stockrooms/storerooms should not be used as preparation or repackaging areas, should be open during normal working hours, and should be controlled by one person.

(c) Distribution. When chemicals are hand carried, the container should be placed in an outside container or bucket. Freight-only elevators should be used if possible.

(d) Laboratory storage. Amounts permitted should be as small as practical. Storage on bench tops and in hoods is inadvisable. Exposure to heat or direct sunlight should be avoided. Periodic inventories should be conducted, with unneeded items being discarded or returned to the storeroom/stockroom.

3. Environmental Monitoring

Regular instrumental monitoring of airborne concentrations is not usually justified or practical in laboratories but may be appropriate when testing or redesigning hoods or other ventilation devices or when a highly toxic substance is stored or used regularly (e.g., 3 times/week).

4. Housekeeping, Maintenance, and Inspections

(a) Cleaning. Floors should be cleaned regularly.

(b) Inspections. Formal housekeeping and chemical hygiene inspections should be held at least quarterly for units which have frequent personnel changes and semiannually for others; informal inspections should be continual.

(c) Maintenance. Eye wash fountains should be inspected at intervals of not less than 3 months. Respirators for routine use should be inspected periodically by the laboratory supervisor. Safety showers should be tested routinely. Other safety equipment should be inspected regularly. (e.g., every 3-6 months). Procedures to prevent restarting of out-of-service equipment should be established.

(d) Passageways. Stairways and hallways should not be used as storage areas. Access to exits, emergency equipment, and utility controls should never be blocked.

5. Medical Program

(a) Compliance with regulations. Regular medical surveillance should be established to the extent required by regulations.

(b) Routine surveillance. Anyone whose work involves regular and frequent handling of toxicologically significant quantities of a chemical should consult a qualified physician to determine on an individual basis whether a regular schedule of medical surveillance is desirable.

(c) First aid. Personnel trained in first aid should be available during working hours and an emergency room with medical personnel should be nearby.

6. Protective Apparel and Equipment--should include for each laboratory:

(a) Protective apparel compatible with the required degree of protection for substances being handled;

(b) An easily accessible drench-type safety shower;

(c) An eyewash fountain;

(d) A fire extinguisher;

(e) Respiratory protection, fire alarm and telephone for emergency use should be available nearby; and

(f) Other items designated by the laboratory supervisor.

7. Records

(a) Accident records should be written and retained.

(b) Chemical Hygiene Plan records should document that the facilities and precautions were compatible with current knowledge and regulations.

(c) Inventory and usage records for high-risk substances should be kept as specified in sections E.3.(e) below.

(d) Medical records should be retained by the institution in accordance with the requirements of state and federal regulations.

8. Signs and Labels

Prominent signs and labels of the following types should be posted:

(a) Emergency telephone numbers of emergency personnel/facilities, supervisors, and laboratory workers;

(b) Identity labels, showing contents of containers (including waste receptacles) and associated hazards;

(c) Location signs for safety showers, eyewash stations, other safety and first aid equipment, exits and areas where food and beverage consumption and storage are permitted; and

(d) Warnings at areas or equipment where special or unusual hazards exist.

9. Spills and Accidents

(a) A written emergency plan should be established and communicated to all personnel; it should include procedures for ventilation failure, evacuation, medical care, reporting, and drills.

(b) There should be an alarm system to alert people in all parts of the facility including isolation areas such as cold rooms.

(c) A spill control policy should be developed and should include consideration of prevention, containment, cleanup, and reporting.

(d) All accidents or near accidents should be carefully analyzed with the results distributed to all who might benefit.

10. Information and Training Program

(a) Aim: To assure that all individuals at risk are adequately informed about the work in the laboratory, its risks, and what to do if an accident occurs.

(b) Emergency and Personal Protection Training: Every laboratory worker should know the location and proper use of available protective apparel and equipment.

Some of the full-time personnel of the laboratory should be trained in the proper use of emergency equipment and procedures.

Such training as well as first aid instruction should be available to and encouraged for everyone who might need it.

(c) Receiving and stockroom/storeroom personnel should know about hazards, handling equipment, protective apparel, and relevant regulations.

(d) Frequency of Training: The training and education program should be a regular, continuing activity--not simply an annual presentation.

(e) Literature/Consultation: Literature and consulting advice concerning chemical hygiene should be readily available to laboratory personnel, who should be encouraged to use these information resources.

11. Waste Disposal Program.

(a) Aim: To assure that minimal harm to people, other organisms, and the environment will result from the disposal of waste laboratory chemicals.

(b) The waste disposal program should specify how waste is to be collected, segregated, stored, and transported and include consideration of what materials can be incinerated. Transport from the institution must be in accordance with DOT regulations.

(c) Discarding Chemical Stocks: Unlabeled containers of chemicals and solutions should undergo prompt disposal; if partially used, they should not be opened.

Before a worker's employment in the laboratory ends, chemicals for which that person was responsible should be discarded or returned to storage.

(d) Frequency of Disposal: Waste should be removed from laboratories to a central waste storage area at least once per week and from the central waste storage area at regular intervals.

(e) Method of Disposal: Incineration in an environmentally acceptable manner is the most practical disposal method for combustible laboratory waste.

Indiscriminate disposal by pouring waste chemicals down the drain or adding them to mixed refuse for landfill burial is unacceptable.

Hoods should not be used as a means of disposal for volatile chemicals.

Disposal by recycling or chemical decontamination should be used when possible.

E. Basic Rules and Procedures for Working with Chemicals

The Chemical Hygiene Plan should require that laboratory workers know and follow its rules and procedures. In addition to the procedures of the sub programs mentioned above, these should include the rules listed below.

1. General Rules/Recommendations

The following should be used for essentially all laboratory work with chemicals:

(a) Accidents and spills--Eye Contact: Promptly flush eyes with water for a prolonged period (15 minutes) and seek medical attention.

Ingestion: Encourage the victim to drink large amounts of water.

Skin Contact: Promptly flush the affected area with water and remove any contaminated clothing. If symptoms persist after washing, seek medical attention.

Clean-up. Promptly clean up spills, using appropriate protective apparel and equipment and proper disposal.

(b) Avoidance of "routine" exposure: Develop and encourage safe habits; avoid unnecessary exposure to chemicals by any route.

Do not smell or taste chemicals. Vent apparatus which may discharge toxic chemicals (vacuum pumps, distillation columns, etc.) into local exhaust devices.

Inspect gloves and test glove boxes before use.

Do not allow release of toxic substances in cold rooms and warm rooms, since these have contained re-circulated atmospheres.

(c) Choice of chemicals: Use only those chemicals for which the quality of the available ventilation system is appropriate.

(d) Eating, smoking, etc.: Avoid eating, drinking, smoking, gum chewing, or application of cosmetics in areas where laboratory chemicals are present; wash hands before conducting these activities.

Avoid storage, handling or consumption of food or beverages in storage areas, refrigerators, glassware or utensils which are also used for laboratory operations.

(e) Equipment and glassware: Handle and store laboratory glassware with care to avoid damage; do not use damaged glassware. Use extra care with Dewar flasks and other evacuated glass apparatus; shield or wrap them to contain chemicals and fragments should implosion occur. Use equipment only for its designed purpose.

(f) Exiting: Wash areas of exposed skin well before leaving the laboratory.

(g) Horseplay: Avoid practical jokes or other behavior which might confuse, startle or distract another worker.

(h) Mouth suction: Do not use mouth suction for pipeting or starting a siphon.

(i) Personal apparel: Confine long hair and loose clothing. Wear shoes at all times in the laboratory but do not wear sandals, perforated shoes, or sneakers.

(j) Personal housekeeping: Keep the work area clean and uncluttered, with chemicals and equipment being properly labeled and stored; clean up the work area on completion of an operation or at the end of each day.

(k) Personal protection: Assure that appropriate eye protection is worn by all persons, including visitors, where chemicals are stored or handled.

Wear appropriate gloves when the potential for contact with toxic materials exists; inspect the gloves before each use, wash them before removal, and replace them periodically.

Use appropriate respiratory equipment when air contaminant concentrations are not sufficiently restricted by engineering controls, inspecting the respirator before use.

Use any other protective and emergency apparel and equipment as appropriate.

Avoid use of contact lenses in the laboratory unless necessary; if they are used, inform supervisor so special precautions can be taken.

Remove laboratory coats immediately on significant contamination.

(l) Planning: Seek information and advice about hazards, plan appropriate protective procedures, and plan positioning of equipment before beginning any new operation.

(m) Unattended operations: Leave lights on, place an appropriate sign on the door, and provide for containment of toxic substances in the event of failure of a utility service (such as cooling water) to an unattended operation.

(n) Use of hood: Use the hood for operations which might result in release of toxic chemical vapors or dust.

As a rule of thumb, use a hood or other local ventilation device when working with any appreciably volatile substance with a TLV of less than 50 ppm.

Confirm adequate hood performance before use; keep hood closed at all times except when adjustments within the hood are being made; keep materials stored in hoods to a minimum and do not allow them to block vents or air flow.

Leave the hood "on" when it is not in active use if toxic substances are stored in it or if it is uncertain whether adequate general laboratory ventilation will be maintained when it is "off".

(o) Vigilance: Be alert to unsafe conditions and see that they are corrected when detected.

(p) Waste disposal: Assure that the plan for each laboratory operation includes plans and training for waste disposal.

Deposit chemical waste in appropriately labeled receptacles and follow all other waste disposal procedures of the Chemical Hygiene Plan.

Do not discharge to the sewer concentrated acids or bases; highly toxic, malodorous, or lachrymatory substances; or any substances which might interfere with the biological activity of waste water treatment plants, create fire or explosion hazards, cause structural damage or obstruct flow.

(q) Working alone: Avoid working alone in a building; do not work alone in a laboratory if the procedures being conducted are hazardous.

2. Working with Allergens and Embryotoxins

(a) Allergens (examples: diazomethane, isocyanates, bichromates): Wear suitable gloves to prevent hand contact with allergens or substances of unknown allergenic activity.

(b) Embryotoxins (examples: organomercurials, lead compounds, formamide): If you are a woman of childbearing age, handle these substances only in a hood whose satisfactory performance has been confirmed, using appropriate protective apparel (especially gloves) to prevent skin contact.

Review each use of these materials with the research supervisor and review continuing uses annually or whenever a procedural change is made.

Store these substances, properly labeled, in an adequately ventilated area in an unbreakable secondary container. Notify supervisors of all incidents of exposure or spills; consult a qualified physician when appropriate.

3. Work with Chemicals of Moderate Chronic or High Acute Toxicity

Supplemental rules to be followed in addition to those mentioned above:

(a) Aim: To minimize exposure to these toxic substances by any route using all reasonable precautions.

(b) Applicability: These precautions are appropriate for substances with moderate chronic or high acute toxicity used in significant quantities.

(c) Location: Use and store these substances only in areas of restricted access with special warning signs.

Always use a hood (previously evaluated to confirm adequate performance with a face velocity of at least 60 linear feet per minute) or other containment device for procedures which may result in the generation of aerosols or vapors containing the substance; trap released vapors to revent their discharge with the hood exhaust.

(d) Personal protection: Always avoid skin contact by use of gloves and long sleeves (and other protective apparel as appropriate). Always wash hands and arms immediately after working with these materials.

(e) Records: Maintain records of the amounts of these materials on hand, amounts used, and the names of the workers involved.

(f) Prevention of spills and accidents: Be prepared for accidents and spills.

Assure that at least 2 people are present at all times if a compound in use is highly toxic or of unknown toxicity.

Store breakable containers of these substances in chemically resistant trays; also work and mount apparatus above such trays or cover work and storage surfaces with removable, absorbent, plastic backed paper.

If a major spill occurs outside the hood, evacuate the area; assure that cleanup personnel wear suitable protective apparel and equipment.

(g) Waste: Thoroughly decontaminate or incinerate contaminated clothing or shoes. If possible, chemically decontaminate by chemical conversion.

Store contaminated waste in closed, suitably labeled, impervious containers (for liquids, in glass or plastic bottles half-filled with vermiculite).

4. Work with Chemicals of High Chronic Toxicity

(Examples: dimethylmercury and nickel carbonyl, benzo-a-pyrene, N-nitrosodiethylamine, other human carcinogens or substances with high carcinogenic potency in animals.)

Further supplemental rules to be followed, in addition to all these mentioned above, for work with substances of known high chronic toxicity (in quantities above a few milligrams to a few grams, depending on the substance).

(a) Access: Conduct all transfers and work with these substances in a "controlled area": a restricted access hood, glove box, or portion of a lab, designated for use of highly toxic substances, for which all people with access are aware of the substances being used and necessary precautions.

(b) Approvals: Prepare a plan for use and disposal of these materials and obtain the approval of the laboratory supervisor.

(c) Non-contamination/Decontamination: Protect vacuum pumps against contamination by scrubbers or HEPA filters and vent them into the hood. Decontaminate vacuum pumps or other contaminated equipment, including glassware, in the hood before removing them from the controlled area.

Decontaminate the controlled area before normal work is resumed there.

(d) Exiting: On leaving a controlled area, remove any protective apparel (placing it in an appropriate, labeled container) and thoroughly wash hands, forearms, face, and neck.

(e) Housekeeping: Use a wet mop or a vacuum cleaner equipped with a HEPA filter instead of dry sweeping if the toxic substance was a dry powder.

(f) Medical surveillance: If using toxicologically significant quantities of such a substance on a regular basis (e.g., 3 times per week), consult a qualified physician concerning desirability of regular medical surveillance.

(g) Records: Keep accurate records of the amounts of these substances stored and used, the dates of use, and names of users.

(h) Signs and labels: Assure that the controlled area is conspicuously marked with warning and restricted access signs and that all containers of these substances are appropriately labeled with identity and warning labels.

(i) Spills: Assure that contingency plans, equipment, and materials to minimize exposures of people and property in case of accident are available.

(j) Storage: Store containers of these chemicals only in a ventilated, limited access area in appropriately labeled, unbreakable, chemically resistant, secondary containers.

(k) Glove boxes: For a negative pressure glove box, ventilation rate must be at least two volume changes/hour and pressure at least 0.5 inches of water. For a positive pressure glove box, thoroughly check for leaks before each use. In either case, trap the exit gases or filter them through a HEPA filter and then release them into the hood.

(l) Waste: Use chemical decontamination whenever possible; ensure that containers of contaminated waste (including washings from contaminated flasks) are transferred from the controlled area in a secondary container under the supervision of authorized personnel.

5. Animal Work with Chemicals of High Chronic Toxicity

(a) Access: For large scale studies, special facilities with restricted access are preferable.

(b) Administration of the toxic substance: When possible, administer the substance by injection or gavage instead of in the diet. If administration is in the diet, use a caging system under negative pressure or under laminar air flow directed toward HEPA filters.

(c) Aerosol suppression: Devise procedures which minimize formation and dispersal of contaminated aerosols, including those from food, urine, and feces (e.g., use HEPA filtered vacuum equipment for cleaning, moisten contaminated bedding before removal from the cage, mix diets in closed containers in a hood).

(d) Personal protection: When working in the animal room, wear plastic or rubber gloves, fully buttoned laboratory coat or jumpsuit and, if needed because of incomplete suppression of aerosols, other apparel and equipment (shoe and head coverings, respirator).

(e) Waste disposal: Dispose of contaminated animal tissues and excreta by incineration if the available incinerator can convert the contaminant to non-toxic products; otherwise, package the waste appropriately for burial in an EPA-approved site.

APPENDIX B--DEFINITIONS OF PHYSICAL HAZARDS

Following are the definitions of physical hazards as used in R 325.70103(l). All definitions except that for pyrophoric are those used in the comparable Federal OSHA standard 29 CFR 1910.1450.

(a) "Combustible liquid" means any liquid having a flashpoint at or above 100oF (37.8oC), but below 200oF (93.3oC), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 200oF (93.3oC), or higher, the total volume of which make up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.

(b) "Compressed gas" means:

(i) A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container, an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 70oF (21.1oC); or

(ii) A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container, an absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi at 130oF (54.4oC) regardless of the pressure at 70oF (21.1oC); or

(iii) A liquid having a vapor pressure exceeding 40 psi at 100oF (37.8oC) as determined by ASTM D-323-72.

(c) "Explosive" means a chemical that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas, and heat when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, or high temperature.

(d) "Flammable" means a chemical that falls into one of the following categories:

(i) "Aerosol, flammable" means an aerosol that, when tested by the method described in 16 CFR 1500.45, yields a flame protection exceeding 18 inches at full valve opening, or a flashback (a flame extending back to the valve) at any degree of valve opening:

(ii) "Gas, flammable" means:

(A) A gas that, at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a flammable mixture with air at a concentration of 13 percent by volume or less; or

(B) A gas that, at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a range of flammable mixtures with air wider than 12 percent by volume, regardless of the lower limit.

(iii) "Liquid, flammable" means any liquid having a flashpoint below 100oF (37.8oC), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 100oF (37.8oC) or higher, the total of which make up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.

(iv) "Solid, flammable" means a solid, other than a blasting agent or explosive as defined in §1910.109(a), that is liable to cause fire through friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which can be ignited readily and when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious hazard. A chemical shall be considered to be a flammable solid if, when tested by the method described in 16 CFR 1500.44, it ignites and burns with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than one-tenth of an inch per second along its major axis.

(e) "Flashpoint" means the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off a vapor in sufficient concentration to ignite when tested as follows:

(i) Tagliabue Closed Tester (See American National Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by Tag Closed Tester, Z11.24-1979 (ASTM D 56-79))--for liquids with a viscosity of less than 45 Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS) at 100oF (37.8oC), that do not contain suspended solids and do not have a tendency to form a surface film under test; or

(ii) Pensky-Martens Closed Tester (see American National Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Tester, Z11.7-1979 (ASTM D 93-79))--for liquids with a viscosity equal to or greater than 45 SUS at 100oF (37.8oC), or that contain suspended solids, or that have a tendency to form a surface film under test; or

(iii) Setaflash Closed Tester (see American National Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by Setaflash Closed Tester (ASTM D 3278-78)).

Organic peroxides, which undergo autoaccelerating thermal decomposition, are excluded from any of the flashpoint determination methods specified above.

(f) "Organic peroxide" means an organic compound that contains the bivalent -O-O- structure and which may be considered to be a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen atoms has been replaced by an organic radical.

(g) "Oxidizer" means a chemical other than a blasting agent or explosive as defined in §1910.109(a), that initiates or promotes combustion in other materials, thereby causing fire either of itself or through the release of oxygen or other gases.

(h) "Pyrophoric" means any liquid or solid that will ignite spontaneously in air at about 130oF (54.4oC).

(i) "Unstable (reactive)" means a chemical which is the pure state, or as produced or transported, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or will become self-reactive under conditions of shock, pressure, or temperature.

(j) "Water-reactive" means a chemical that reacts with water to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard.

APPENDIX C--DEFINITION OF SELECT CARCINOGEN

Following is an exact copy of the definition of select carcinogen from paragraph (b) Definitions of 29 CFR §1910.1450:

"Select carcinogen" means any substance which meets one of the following criteria:

(i) It is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen; or

(ii) It is listed under the category, "known to be carcinogens," in the Annual Report on Carcinogens published by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) (latest edition); or

(iii) It is listed under Group 1 "carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs (IARC) (latest editions); or

(iv) It is listed in either Group 2A or 2B by IARC or under the category, "reasonable anticipated to be carcinogens" by NTP, and causes statistically significant tumor incidence in experimental animals in accordance with any of the following criteria:

(a) After inhalation exposure of 6-7 hours per day, 5 days per week, for a significant portion of a lifetime to dosages of less than 10 mg/m3,

(b) After repeated skin application of less than 300 (mg/kg of body weight) per week; or

(c) After oral dosages of less than 50 mg/kg of body weight per day.

APPENDIX D--REFERENCES

The following references are provided to assist employers in the development and implementation of a chemical hygiene plan. References listed here do not imply specific endorsement or approval of the material. Other references may better meet the needs of a particular laboratory situation.

A. References for Development of the Chemical Hygiene Plan.

1. American Chemical Society.

(a) Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories, fourth edition, 1985.

(b) Developing a Chemical Hygiene Plan, 1990., ACS, Distribution Office Dept. 404. P.O. Box 57136, West End Station, Washington, DC 20037 (phone 800-227-5558).

2. Fawcett, H.H. and W.S. Wood, Safety and Accident Prevention in Chemical Operations, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, One Wiley Drive, Somerset, N.J. 08875-9977, 1982.

3. Flury, P.A., Environmental Health and Safety in the Hospital Laboratory, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfield, IL, 1978.

4. Hearn, L.C., et al, OSHA Laboratory Standard Implementation Guide, Lewis Publishers, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431, 1991.

5. National Institute of Health, NIH Guidelines for the Laboratory Use of Chemical Carcinogens, NIH Pub. No. 81-2385, GPO, Washington, DC 20402, 1981.

13

6. National Research Council.

(a) Prudent Practices for Disposal of Chemicals for Laboratories, 1983.

(b) Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories, 1981. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

7. Ouellette, R.P., et al, Safety, Health and the Lab, published in June/July 1991 issue of Environmental Lab.

8. Professional Associates in Regulatory Services, OSHA Laboratory Standard - Chemical Hygiene Plan, 1987, available from A.C.G.I.H. 6500 Glenway Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45211-4438, phone 513-661-7881.

9. Stricoff, R.S., and D.B. Walters, Laboratory Health and Safety Handbook, John Wiley & Sons (See list No. 2), 1990.

10. Young, J.A., Ed., Improving Safety in the Chemical Laboratory, John Wiley & Sons (See list No. 2), 1987.

B. References for Hazardous Chemical Information.

1. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

(a) Guide to Occupational Exposure Values.

(b) Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices.

2. Annual Report on Carcinogens, National Toxicology Program, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, GPO., Washington, DC 20402, (latest edition).

3. Best Company, Best Safety Directory, Vols. I and II, Oldurick, NJ, 1981.

4. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man, World Health Organization Publications Center, 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210, (latest edition).

5. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals, Merck and Co. Inc., Rahway, NJ, (latest edition).

6. MIOSHA Occupational Health Standards for General Industry, Standards Division, Michigan Department of Consumer and Industry Services, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, MI 48909. Website address: www.michigan.gov/mioshastandards.

7. Sax, N.I., Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY, NY.

8. Sittig, M., Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ 1985.

C. References for Ventilation Control Information.

1. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

(a) Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice, (latest edition).

(b) Burton, D.J., Laboratory Ventilation Workbook, 1991.

(c) Pipitone, D.A., Safe Storage of Laboratory Chemicals, 1991, ACGIH, 6500 Glenway Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45211-4438, phone 513-661-7881.

2. American National Standards Institute, Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, ANSI Z 9.2-1979, ANSI, 1430 Broadway, New York City, NY 10018.

3. Caplan, P.E., and Knutson, G.W., A Performance Test for Laboratory Fume Hoods, in American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, October 1982.

4. National Fire Protection Association.

(a) Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals, NFPA-45, 1982.

(b) Fire Protection Guide on Hazardous Materials, (latest edition).

(c) Safety Standard for Laboratories in Health Related Institutions, NFPA-56C, 1980, NFPA, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, MA 02210.

5. Scientific Apparatus Makers Association, Standard for Laboratory Fume Hoods, SAMA LF7-1980, SAMA, 1101 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036.

Appendix E

Classes of Peroxidizable Chemicals

A. Chemicals that form explosive levels of peroxides without concentration

Butadienea Divinylacetylene Tetrafluoroethylenea Vinylidene chloride

Chloroprenea Isopropyl ether

B. Chemicals that form explosive levels of peroxides on concentration

Acetal Diacetylene 2-Hexanol 2-Phenylethanol

Acetaldehyde Dicyclopentadiene Methylacetylene 2-Propanol

Benzyl alcohol Diethyl ether 3-Methyl-1-butanol Tetrahydroforan

2-Butanol Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether Methylcyclopentane Tetrahydronaphthalene

Cumene (diglyme) Methyl isobutyl ketone Vinyl ethers

Cyclohexanol Dioxanes 4-Methyl-2-pentanol Other secondary alcohols

2-Cyclohexen-1-ol Ethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2-Penten-1-ol

Cyclohexene (glyme) 4-Penten-1-ol

Decahydronaphthalene 4-Heptanol 1-Phenylethanol

C. Chemicals that may autopolymerize as a result of peroxide accumulation

Acrylic acidb Chlorotrifluoroethylene Vinyl acetate Vinyladiene chloride

Acrylonitrileb Methyl methacrylateb Vinylacetylene

Butadienec Styrene Vinyl chloride

Chloroprenec Tetrafluoroethylenec Vinylpyridine

D. Chemicals that may form peroxides but cannot clearly be placed in sections A-C

Acrolein tert-Butyl methyl ether Di(1-propynyl) etherf 4-Methyl-2-pentanone

Allyl etherd n-Butyl phenyl ether Di(2-propynyl) ether n-Methylphenetole

Allyl ethyl ether n-Butyl vinyl ether Di-n-propoxymethaned 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran

Allyl phenyl ether Chloroacetaldehyde diethylacetald 1,2-Epoxy-3-isopropoxypropaned 3-Methoxy-1-butyl acetate

p-(n-Amyloxy)benzoyl chloride 2-Chlorobutadiene 1,2-Epoxy-3-phenoxypropane 2-Methoxyethanol

n-Amyl ether 1-(2-Chloroethoxy)-2-phen- Ethoxyacetophenone 3-Methoxyethyl acetate

Benzyl n-butyl etherd oxyethane 1-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)ethyl acetate 2-Methoxyethyl vinyl ether

Benzyl etherd Chloroethylene 2-Ethoxyethyl acetate Methoxy-1,3,5,7-cycloocta

Benzyl ethyl etherd Chloromethyl methyl ethere (2-Ethoxyethyl)-o-benzoyl tetraene

Benzyl methyl ether ß-Chlorophenetole benzoate ß-Methoxypropionitrile

Benzyl 1-naphthyl etherd o-Chlorophenetole 1-Ethoxynaphthalene m-Nitrophenetole

1,2-Bis(2-chloroethoxy)ethane p-Chlorophenetole o,p-Ethoxyphenyl isocyanate 1-Octene

Bis(2-ethoxyethyl) ether Cyclooctened 1-Ethoxy-2-propyne Oxybis(2-ethyl acetate)

Bis(2-(methoxyethoxy)ethyl) Cyclopropyl methyl ether 3-Ethoxyopropionitrile Oxybis(2-ethyl benzoate)

ether Diallyl etherd 2-Ethylacrylaldehyde oxime ß,ß-Oxydipropionitrile

Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether p-Di-n-butoxybenzene 2-Ethylbutanol 1-Pentene

Bis(2-ethoxyethyl) adipate 1,2-Dibenzyloxyethaned Ethyl ß-ethoxypropionate Phenoxyacetyl chloride

Safe Storage Period for Peroxide Forming Chemicals

Description Period

Unopened chemicals from manufacturer 18 months

Opened containers

Chemicals in Part A 3 months

Chemicals in Parts B and D 12 months

Unihibited chemicals in Part C 24 hours

Inhibited chemicals in Part C 12 months

a Do not store under inert atmosphere, oxygen required for inhibitor to function.

Sources: Kelly, Richard J., Chemical Health & Safety, American Chemical Society, 1996, Sept, 28-36

Appendix F

Document Retention

Draft

Record Title

Chemical Hygiene Plan Records - Laboratory Research Proposal

Series Number

TBA

Schedule Number

06-0001

Description

This record series documents the approval process for laboratory research projects that use hazardous substances. The academic department's Chemical Hygiene Officer and Safety Committee reviews the project's safety plan prior to approval. Records include, but are not limited to, name of the principle investigator, a statement of known hazardous and security risks, a project safety / security plan, chain of custody for substances of known risk, a plan for safety training, and a plan for record keeping.

Confidential

No

Electronic Record

No

Vital

No

Record Copy

General schedule - All academic departments

Update

3/22/2006

Retention

Retain seven years and destroy in office.

Comment

Retention requirement conforms to NMU's Chemical Hygiene Plan, section 1.6, Recordkeeping. The retention period also conforms to MIOSHA R 325.70111 and 29CFR1910.1200.

Office Practice

The academic department's Chemical Hygiene Officer will maintain this record series. Copies will be sent to Public Safety.

Record Title

Chemical Hygiene Plan Records - Safety Training

Series Number

TBA

Schedule Number

06-0002

Description

This record series documents general chemical safety seminars conducted by each academic department's Chemical Hygiene Officer. Records include, but are not limited to, syllabi, informational handouts, seminar rosters, instructor notes, and PowerPoint presentations.

Confidential

No

Electronic Record

No

Vital

No

Record Copy

General schedule - All academic departments

Update

3/22/2006

Retention

Permanent. Retain seven years in office and then transfer to the University Archives.

Comment

Retention requirement conforms to NMU's Chemical Hygiene Plan, section 1.6, Recordkeeping. The retention period also conforms to MIOSHA R 325.70111 and 29CFR1910.1200.

Office Practice

The academic department's Chemical Hygiene Officer will maintain this record series. Copies will be sent to Public Safety.

Archivist Appraisal

Records provide important evidential and information value on the management of academic laboratories.

Record Title

Chemical Hygiene Plan Records - Satellite Accumulation Area Inspection

Series Number

TBA

Schedule Number

06-0003

Description

This record series documents the safety inspection of an area or piece of equipment used in a laboratory handling hazardous chemicals. This record series contains the inspection report.

Confidential

No

Electronic Record

No

Vital

No

Record Copy

General schedule - All academic departments

Update

3/22/2006

Retention

Retain in office five years and then destroy provided no litigation is pending.

Comment

Retention requirement conforms to NMU's Chemical Hygiene Plan, section 1.6, Recordkeeping. The retention period also conforms to MIOSHA R 325.70111 and 29CFR1910.1200.

Office Practice

The academic department's Chemical Hygiene Officer will maintain this record series. Copies will be sent to Public Safety.

Record Title

Chemical Hygiene Plan Records - Medical Event, Exposure, or Accident

Series Number

TBA

Schedule Number

06-0004

Description

This record series documents all complaints of a medical event, exposure, or accident involving hazardous chemicals in an academic laboratory. What documentation?

Confidential

Yes

Electronic Record

No

Vital

No

Record Copy

General schedule - All academic departments

Update

3/22/2006

Retention

Retain in office 30 years and confidentially destroy provided no litigation is pending.

Comment

Retention requirement conforms to NMU's Chemical Hygiene Plan, section 1.6, Recordkeeping and the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act, 29 U.S.C 651.

Office Practice

The academic department's Chemical Hygiene Officer will maintain this record series. Copies will be sent to Public Safety.