Nondiscrimination Federal and State Laws, and Regulations


Federal

Age Discrimination Act of 1975
Protects people from discrimination based on age in programs or activities receiving Federal financial assistance.  The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity commission is the law enforcement agency charged with enforcing the ADA of 1975.

Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967
Protects individuals who are 40 years of age or older from employment discrimination based on age.  The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is the agency charged with enforcing the ADEA.

Civil Rights Act of 1866 & Civil Rights Act of 1871 - CRA - 42 U.S. Code 21 §§1981, 1981A, 1983, & 1988
All persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall have the same right in every State and Territory to make and enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, give evidence, and to the full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of persons and property as is enjoyed by white citizens, and shall be subject to like punishment, pains, penalties, taxes, licenses, and exactions of every kind, and to no other. 

Civil Rights Act of 1991
Amends the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to strengthen and improve Federal civil rights laws, to provide monetary damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination.  The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is the agency charged with enforcing the CRA of 1991.

Equal Pay Act of 1963
Protects men and women who perform substantially equal work in the same establishment from sex-based wage discrimination.  The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is the agency charged with enforcing the EPA.

Executive Order 11246
Requires certain government contractors to engage in affirmative action and prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.  The Office of Federal Compliance Programs (U.S. Department of Labor) is the agency charged with enforcing Executive Order 11246 and ensuring that federal contractors are in compliance.

Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009
Amends Title VII, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, the ADA and the Rehab Act.  This act clarifies the time frame victims of discrimination may challenge and recover for discriminatory compensation decisions or other discriminatory practices affecting compensation.

Section 503 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1972
Section 503 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination and requires employers with federal contracts or subcontracts that exceed $10,000 to take affirmative action to hire, retain, and promote qualified individuals with disabilities. 

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Protects people from discrimination in admission, employment, treatment or access based on disability in programs or activities receiving Federal financial assistance.  The Office for Civil Rights (U.S. Department of Education) is the agency charged with enforcing Title VI.

Title I of the Americans with Disability Act of 1990
Prohibits employment discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities by employers.  The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the Office for Civil Rights are the agencies assigned to enforce Title I of the ADA.

Title II of the American with Disabilities Act of 1990
Prohibits disability discrimination by public entities, including public colleges and universities, whether or not they receive Federal financial assistance.  The Office for Civil Rights (U.S. Department of Education) is the agency charged with enforcing Title II of the ADA.

Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex  in any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.  Programs and activities that receive Federal financial assistance from the U.S. Department of education are covered by Title VI.  The Office of Civil Rights (Department of Education), is the law enforcement agency charged with enforcing Title VI.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Protects individuals against unlawful employment practices based on their race, color, sex, religion and national origin.  The Civil Rights Act of 1991 significantly extended plaintiffs’ rights under Title VII.  The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is the law enforcement agency charged with enforcing Title VII.

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972
Prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in the education programs or activities and extends coverage to employment and admission to institutions that receive Federal financial assistance.  The Office for Civil Rights (U.S. Department of Education) is the law enforcement agency charged with enforcing Title IX.


State

Elliott-Larsen Civil Rights Act (1976)
State of Michigan Act that prohibits “discrimination practices, policies and customs in the exercise of those rights based upon religion, race, color, national origin, age, sex, height, weight, or marital status.”  The Michigan Department of Civil Rights is the agency assigned to handle complaints of discrimination.

Michigan Ethnic Intimidation Act of 1988
The Ethnic Intimidation Act of 1988 added to the state penal code the crimes of physical contact, destruction of personal property, or the threat of either with malicious intent based on the victim's race, color, religion, gender, or national origin.