- The supervising teacher’s first responsibility is to the pupils in his/her class. This must be kept in mind if the public, administration and pupils are to continuously support the Student Teaching Program.
- Prepare pupils to work with a student teacher and notify the parents that there will be a student teacher in the classroom.
- Provide a working area for the student teacher (a desk or table) and share responsibilities whenever possible, accepting him/her as a co-worker and professional person.
- Acquaint the student teacher with pertinent school policies and regulations, philosophy, priorities and assessment criteria.
- Immediately involve the student teacher in specific classroom tasks.
- Plan, with the student teacher, a schedule for assuming responsibilities of the classroom that allows the student teacher to assume increasing responsibility as he/she exhibits readiness to do so.
- Require the student teacher to be solely responsible for planning, preparation, instruction and evaluation for a minimum of two weeks to demonstrate the continuity of instruction and teacher accountability.
- Guide the student teacher in preparing daily lesson plans, unit plans and tests and approve and critique all plans before they are taught. Assist in understanding and applying evaluation techniques.
- Demonstrate a variety of effective teaching techniques and arrange for visits to other classrooms from time to time.
- Guide the student teacher in developing and understanding the skills of self-evaluation.
- Evaluate the quality of the student teacher’s performance and engage in frequent conferences with the student teacher to insure continuous progress and/or early identification of problems.
- Encourage the student teacher to participate in community activities.
- Help the student teacher relate theory to practice.
- Keep a record of attendance and tardiness of the student teacher. If excessive absences or tardiness is observed, report this to the university supervisor.
- Prepare and submit evaluation reports according to schedule and recommend the final decision for certification of the student teacher.
The following list of responsibilities for the student teacher will help ensure a rewarding student teaching experience:
- Become familiar with school policies and practices and work in a manner consistent with them.
- Become thoroughly acquainted with classroom facilities and learn the procedures used by the supervising teacher.
- Become acquainted with instructional materials available in the school and school district.
- Become familiar with the community and its relationship to the educational program.
- Plan thoroughly, in writing, for all teaching responsibilities. An acceptable lesson plan is expected for every lesson to be taught.
- Be punctual and attend each class daily, whether teaching or not.
- Inform the school in advance of anticipated absences, or as early as possible on the day that an emergency arises.
- Make time available for conferences with the supervising teacher and the university supervisor.
- Continuously evaluate personal progress with the supervising teacher and university supervisor.
- Attend and participate actively in all student teaching seminars.
- Notify supervisors of any persistent problems in their student teaching.
- Demonstrate the knowledge, instructional assessment and professional competencies as described above in the evaluation section.
The following list of responsibilities will assist the principal in helping the student teacher become a member of the school community:
- Accept student teachers as junior members of the teaching faculty.
- Offer students those facilities, resources, teaching materials, supplies and equipment customarily available to other teachers.
- Help the faculty and parents understand their responsibilities to the student teacher.
- Introduce the student teachers and university personnel to the building.
- Assist the school coordinator, the student teachers, the supervising teacher and the university supervisor to resolve special problems in student teaching.
- Help supervising teachers guide the growth of student teachers.
- Provide counsel and assistance to the school coordinator and university supervisors in the development of a high quality student teaching experience in the building and the community.
The following list of responsibilities will assist the school coordinator to locate placements in the school building for student teachers and help the program to run smoothly:
- Interpret the student teaching program to faculty, pupils, parents and the general community, emphasizing its nature and importance and enlisting their support.
- Coordinate the student teaching program in the designated schools and the community.
- Serve as a liaison between the offices of the local schools and the University.
- Provide professional leadership within the total community and specifically within the teaching faculty to develop high quality student teaching experiences.
- Recommend supervising teachers and represent the schools in the placement of student teachers.
- Assume responsibility for the orientation of student teachers and new supervising teachers.
- Ensure reports and materials required by the Field Experience Office are processed in a timely manner.
- Advise and assist principals, supervising teachers and university supervisors in their responsibilities for guiding the growth of student teachers.
- Participate with the offices of the Superintendent of Schools and the University in evaluating the effectiveness of the student teaching program.
The following list of responsibilities will guide the university supervisor in assisting the professional relationship between the student teacher and the school community:
- Serve as a liaison between the schools and the University.
- Cooperate with school personnel in a manner that will enhance the partnership between the school system and the University.
- Identify and recommend potential supervising teachers.
- Recommend assignments of student teachers.
- Serve as a resource person for the supervising teacher and the student teacher.
- Observe the student teacher teach at least four times per semester. The observations will be spread throughout the semester, at least one per month. A student who has a split assignment will be observed a minimum of two times per assignment.
- Initiate conferences with student teachers, supervising teachers and others concerned with the student's progress.
- Confer and cooperate with the student teacher and supervising teacher in evaluating the student's progress and give them a copy of the evaluation.
- Submit reports to the Director of Field Experiences.
- Act to enhance the continuing growth and quality of the student teaching program.
The following list of responsibilities will assist the director to uphold a high quality program that fosters the growth and professional development of all individuals concerned:
- Administer and provide leadership for the student teaching program.
- Establish policies and procedures for administering the student teaching program.
- Consult with supervising teachers, school administrators and coordinators of student teaching and all departments of the University to develop, implement and evaluate the student teaching program.
- Provide opportunities for in-service education for supervisory personnel.
- Approve supervising teachers.
- Approve student teaching assignments.
- Oversee the nature and quality of the student teaching experiences.
- Monitor the nature of the supervision provided by the University.
- Review all written evaluations of each student teacher.
- Cooperate with the School of Education, Leadership and Public Service Director and the Dean in implementing teacher education goals.
Plan an orientation to discuss student teaching roles and responsibilities for prospective student teachers.
Each supervising teacher must decide how quickly the student teacher should begin teaching. The supervising teacher may want to consult with the university supervisor in determining how quickly the student teacher should assume his or her duties. Factors such as the knowledge, ability and maturity of the student teacher and the temperament of the class will affect this decision.
The student teacher's adjustment to the classroom and assumption of the teaching load will depend upon the individual student, the situation and the supervising teacher. The following list identifies activities, which can assist in the adjustment to the classroom and the assumption of the teaching load.
Orientation to Total School System
- Instructional Materials and Media Center
- Counseling and testing
- Consultants and special area supervisors
- School administration
- Community resources
Orientation to Building
- Become acquainted with the building.
- Meet the teachers in the building.
- Read the philosophy of the school.
- Read the handbook of policies and procedures.
- Study fire drill regulations and crisis intervention plan.
- Survey equipment and materials available for use.
- Study the curriculum guides.
- Become acquainted with the custodian in charge of classroom and locate his office.
- Visit the school office; become acquainted with the personnel.
- Learn about the grouping philosophy.
- Obtain and use resource materials.
- Study cumulative records of pupils as needed.
- Have individual conferences with pupils.
- Write personal observations (simple profiles) of pupils.
- Use suggestions made by consultant (art, music, etc.).
- Hold or observe conferences with parents.
- Use services of a consultant concerning pupils.
- Organize and use bulletin board material.
- Utilize supplementary materials and exhibits.
- Have experience with student accounting procedures.
- Visit other classrooms.
- Plan and execute a field trip.
- Plan and teach at least one unit.
- Prepare and administer unit tests as with other appropriate assessment tools.
- Use assessment results to improve teaching.
- Aid in preparing pupil progress reports.
- Plan and implement use of library by a group of learners.
- Start a resource materials file.
- Plan and execute remedial measures with a pupil in class.
- Administer and score a standardized test.
- Use appropriate media and technology in the classroom.
- Encourage student teachers to write a letter of introduction to parents.
- Keep “What I learned today” journals.
- Attend a faculty meeting.
- Attend a professional meeting or conference.
- Observe supervised lunch period.
- Observe playground supervisor.
- Help plan or observe an assembly or classroom program.
- Observe or work with a club and/or activity group.
- Help plan or attend a school party.
- Attend a P.T.A./P.T.O. meeting.
- Talk with a parent at P.T.A./P.T.O.
- Observe a safety patrol.
- Participate in at least one community improvement activity.
- Help plan or observe a fire drill.
- Attend a school sponsored event for the public such as a play, a concert, an athletic event or open house for parents.
Proposed Sequencing for Student Teaching
All student teachers will have had classroom experiences as part of their teacher education preparation before they student teach and should be able to take over responsibilities quickly and effectively. Student teachers should gradually assume all duties of the teacher. It is recommended that the students have an opportunity to gradually give up their duties as they end their student teaching. It is important that the student teacher be left alone in the classroom. The supervising teacher can use this time for professional development and service. Below are some suggestions for sequencing the student teaching experience.
Semester before student teaching
- Have student teacher obtain substitute teaching permit.
- Review student teaching requirements.
- Interview student teacher for screening purposes.
- Discuss assignment with student teacher.
- Orient student teachers to school and beginning responsibilities so they can prepare.
- Provide lesson plans, materials, policies and other materials needed for preparation.
- Have student teacher spend at least one day in the classroom to become familiar with the school, students, curriculum and supervising teacher.
First day of student teaching
- Introduce student teacher as a professional to school and community.
- Provide professional work space for student teacher.
- Provide seating chart and necessary student information.
- Engage student teacher in meaningful activities immediately.
First week of student teaching
- Allow opportunities to observe your class, other teachers and become oriented to the school.
- Have student teachers begin the following: work with one group, teach one class, administer tests, perform routine duties, teach one class, practice classroom control.
- Gradually increase responsibilities and decrease dependency on supervising teacher.
- Evaluate student teacher's daily plans for approval and improvements.
- Evaluate progress and give frequent feedback.
- Have student teach a full day within the first four weeks before turning in first progress report.
- Develop a professional development plan with the student teacher.
- Continue to model effective teaching techniques/strategies.
- Have student complete one week of full-time teaching.
- Complete mid-term evaluation based upon their current performance and share concerns.
- If split assignment, give evaluation form to the next supervisor and discuss.
- If student is beginning a new placement, follow the orientation for a beginning student teacher, including the submission of a First Progress Report.
- Continuously evaluate progress and give feedback as they assume more duties.
- Have students complete two full weeks of teaching.
- Have student teachers gradually return teaching responsibilities to teacher and observe in other classes.
- Complete final evaluation and discuss with student teacher.
The following strategies will assist the supervising teacher and the student teacher in addressing three typically challenging areas:
Providing for Initial Success
- Use the student teacher's strengths to determine early activities and/or responsibilities.
- Encourage cooperative learning techniques to help the student teacher feel comfortable.
- Use "a rug" to promote a sense of community within the classroom; use it as a center for story telling or discussion.
- Suggest that the student teacher read personal journal entries to the students.
- Promote "hands-on" work.
- Have the student teacher tutor at-risk students.
- Set aside time for the students to interview the student teacher; set aside time for the student teacher to interview the students.
- Provide a structured orientation (with the help of a checklist) to the building, personnel, policies and procedures.
- Make expectations and responsibilities clear; include dates with objectives; put expectations and responsibilities in writing.
- Establish and maintain regular and frequent conference times.
- Share seating charts with a student teacher during early observation period as a way to develop familiarity with class members.
- Encourage a breadth of classroom observations followed by focused discussion.
Giving Feedback: Evaluating Student Teaching Performance
- Establish a routine time and place for conferencing.
- Use videotaping with private and shared viewings followed by journal writing and discussion.
- Offer immediate feedback; feedback as close to the incident as possible helps communicate relevance.
- Use 3 x 5 cards to record ideas during observation; use them as a guide to direct conference discussions.
- Encourage student teacher self-assessment and reflection.
- When opportune, encourage re-teaching.
- Use "What I learned today" entries from a student teacher's journal to guide end-of-the-day discussions.
- Encourage student teachers to use a sound teaching assessment tool to acquire feedback from students regarding their effectiveness.
- Use TESA coding as a tool for giving student teachers feedback.
- Use an established set of non-verbal cues to offer student teachers feedback during their delivery.
- Be firm and fair in providing needed corrective feedback.
- Use end-of-week written summaries of "This week's areas of growth" and "Next week's challenges."
Directing the Development of Classroom Management Skills
- Provide opportunities to experiment; permit failure with opportunities to revamp.
- Clarify the difference between friend and friendly.
- Prepare a written guide of appropriate management techniques; this may be part of a handbook.
- Develop and demonstrate a repertoire of management and discipline strategies.
- Establish a procedure to critique and compliment the student teacher.
- Accept that what works for a supervising teacher may or may not work for the student teacher.
- Consider a point system for rewards with warnings and consequences for your classroom; a point system may provide an easy-to-understand
procedure for a student teacher.
- Emphasize consistency.
- Promote respect in your classroom.
- Transfer authority to the student teacher when appropriate.
- Consider adopting another building's successful program, i.e., STRIDES.
- Promote NMU's Classroom Management course
Suggested Observation Techniques for Supervising Teachers
Beginning of Class Activities
- Did the class start on time? (How long after?)
- Was there a bell to start class?
- Was there an anticipatory set?
- How long did “roll call” take? What did the students do during this time?
- Were the students in their seats when the bell rang?
- Which of these techniques did you like?
- How would you have done things differently?
- Was an objective for this class period given? What was it? When was it stated?
- Was there a review of what was learned yesterday?
- Was it evident that the teacher had objective(s) for this class period?
- Did the class or teacher digress from objectives?
- Were the objectives reached by the end of the period? If not, why not?
- Did the closure include a summary of the objectives?
- Which of these techniques did you like?
- How would you have done things differently?
- How were directions given?
- Was everyone listening?
- How did the teacher get everyone’s attention?
- Was the teacher clear?
- Was the teacher concise?
- What was the noise level during directions?
- What was the body posture of the students during directions?
- Did the students seem to understand the directions?
- Did the teacher check for understanding? How?
- Were the directions given more than once?
- How would you change the presentation of the same directions?
- Were there stated expectations? Were they clear? Were they reasonable?
- Did the students seem to already know what was expected?
- Did the students’ behavior correspond with the stated expectations?
- Did the expectations help the students focus on the desired outcomes?
- How would you have stated the expectations differently?
- How did the students input? Raise hands? Call out? No response?
- How effective was the student input?
- If more than one type of student input was observed, which seemed to be most effective and why?
- Did the learning remain focused? Did the teacher digress? Did the students digress? How did the teacher pull them back together again?
- What percentage of the hour was lecture (no student comments)?
- Did the teacher use active participation? List examples.
- What was the noise level for each kind of presentation used?
- Did you observe cooperative learning?
- For the lesson being presented, what presentation mode would you have used?
- Did the period move along smoothly?
- What did the teacher do to maintain or pick up the energy level?
- How did the teacher challenge the students?
- What did the teacher do to make the lesson interesting?
- What novelty type activities did the teacher use?
- Would these teaching techniques be something that you might use?
- Did the lesson go from known to unknown? What was the “known”?
- Did the lesson go from simple to complex?
- Did the lesson “go step by step”?
- Did the students seem to follow and understand the lesson?
- Could you follow and understand the lesson?
- Did the teacher monitor and adjust the lesson?
- How did he/she adjust the lesson?
- How would you have done it differently?
- What motivational techniques did you observe?
- Extra credit
- Free time
- Other __________
- Was there any creativity in the presentation?
- What motivational techniques do you plan to use?
Classroom Management of Media and Materials
- How were the materials distributed? What was the noise level? Was the process efficient?
- Did the students have their own materials with them?
- Did the students have their own textbook or were they distributed in class?
- Is there a place in the room for students’ folders?
- Did all the students have a pencil? If not, how did the teacher handle this?
- Was there a homework assignment due that day? How many students either forgot it or did not do it? How did the teacher react?
- Were there disruptions caused by students who did not have a pencil, paper, homework, or textbook?
- How would you handle distribution of materials in class?
- What would you do about students who come to class without their text, pencil, etc.?
Media in the Classroom
- Which of the following were used in the classroom? Chalkboard, Overhead, Recordings, VCR, Filmstrips, Movies, Computer(s)?
- How smooth was the operation or use of these?
- Did the use of media effectively contribute to the lessons?
- What was the noise level during the use of media?
- What are the advantages of using media?
- What are the disadvantages of using media?
- What student disruptions did you observe?
- Talking out loud (interrupting)
- Writing and/or passing notes
- Reading during lecture or discussion
- Inappropriate responses or questions
- Getting out of seats without permission
- Students who do not have materials
- Students chewing gum or eating candy
- Others _____
- What evidence of on-task behaviors did you observe?
- Raised hands
- Intelligent responses
- Effort to try
- Enthusiastic participation
- Others _____
Teacher’s Response to Student Behaviors (Discipline)
- What positive reinforcers did the teacher use?
- What negative reinforcers did the teacher use?
- Is the tone of the classroom affected by the choice of reinforcers used?
- Did the teacher sometimes ignore good behavior?
- Did the teacher sometimes ignore bad behavior?
- Were individual behavior problems addressed in front of the whole class or privately?
- Did the teacher use any non-verbal discipline techniques? What were they?
- List some positive responses used by the teacher.
- List some negative responses used by the teacher.
- What was the overall tone of the class?
- Were there more positive or negative responses by the teacher?
- Did the teacher responses (either positive or negative) seem to fit the behavior of the students?
- About a particular discipline problem:
- What did the student do wrong?
- How did the teacher respond?
- Did the student’s behavior then change for the better?
- How comfortable would you feel using this technique?
- What might you have done differently?
- What did the teacher do to raise the level of concern?
- Did the teacher use feeling tone?
- Was the administering of discipline more authoritarian (teacher dominated), behaviorism (democratic) or humanism (understanding)?
- What non-verbal teacher behaviors did you observe? How effective were they?
- What non-verbal student behaviors did you observe? Did the teacher respond?
- Are grades mentioned during class?
- Do grades seem to motivate good student participation/behavior?
- How are daily grades recorded during class? Privately? Publicly?
- Who hands back graded student papers in class?
- Do students grade one another’s papers in class? If so, does the teacher give specific directions as to how to mark them?
- Are grades an integral part of this class?
- How do you feel about the confidentiality of grades?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of grading papers during class?
- How important will grades be in your classroom?
Ending of Class Activities (Closure)
- What did the teacher do for closure?
- Was there a summary? Who contributed? Teacher and/or students?
- Did closure include a check for understanding?
- Did you have a sense that the teacher was aware of the time and trying to wrap up for a good ending?
- Did the class have an ending or did it just stop?
- Was dismissal rowdy or quiet?
- How would you have dismissed the class?
- What level of Bloom’s taxonomy did you observe?
- What is an example of each of the domains observed?
- In what ways did the teacher employ visual learning?
- In what ways did the teacher employ audio learning?
- In what ways did the teacher employ kinesthetic learning?
- Are you more visual, audio, or kinesthetic when it comes to your personal preference for learning?
- Give an example of how you could employ all three learning styles in your teaching?
- Which of the following describes the classroom you observed?
- Good classroom management and control
- Chairs/desks straightened
- Lots of participation
- Student’s work displayed
- A lot of disruptions
- Creative bulletin boards
- Sitting up attentively
- Slouching or leaning back on chairs
- No windows
- Students interacting (instead of listening and participating)
- Organized look to the room
- Messy look to the room
- Students making fun of others
- Teacher seems intimidating
- Students accepting each other
- Teacher and students seem relaxed
- Cheerful, friendly students
- Rowdy, noisy and/or crabby students
- How comfortable were you in this setting?
- What would you change?
Teacher Personal Characteristics
- Which of the following personal characteristics did the teacher display?
- Rarely compliments
- Dresses neatly
- Recognizes group effort
- Sloppy dress
- Recognizes individual effort
- Compliments easily and often
- Easily flustered
- Admits errors
- Sense of humor
- Listens to students
- Can think on his/her feet
- Relaxed (laid back)
- Understanding, caring
- Shares relevant personal stories
- Stays mostly in one place
- Walks around the room
- Which of these personal characteristics best describe you?
- What are some of the personal characteristics that you would like to improve?
In order to receive certification, a student teacher must have successfully completed the following:
- MTTC major/minor subject area and elementary education tests, as needed
- student teaching
- degree requirements for graduation
- all requirements for State of Michigan teacher certification
- an application for certification
- American Red Cross or American Heart Association general first aid and adult & child CPR card valid at time of recommendation
Michigan Provisional Certificates
The Michigan Provisional Certificate is the mandatory initial Michigan teaching certificate. It is the prerequisite to an eventual Michigan Professional Education Certificate. The basic Michigan teaching certificates are currently valid for teaching in the following areas:
- Elementary – satisfactory completion of a program in elementary education qualifies a student for a Michigan Elementary Provisional Certificate, which is valid for teaching kindergarten through grade 5 and major and minor fields in grades 6, 7 and 8 and self-contained grades 6, 7 and 8.
- Secondary – students who satisfactorily complete a curriculum for secondary teaching qualify for a Michigan Secondary Provisional Certificate which is valid for grades 6-12 in their major and minor areas. Exceptions to this are Art, Music, Physical Education and Industrial Technology majors, which cover grades K-12.
- Special Education – satisfactory completion of a program for teaching the mentally impaired (MI) or the emotionally impaired (EI) qualifies graduates for an Elementary or Secondary Provisional Certificate and an endorsement to teach children in kindergarten through grade 12 in the specialty area.
The State of Michigan requires that an application for certification be made no later than five years after credit requirements have been met. The initial Michigan Provisional Certificate is valid for 5 ¼ to 6 ¼ years, depending on the month of issuance. Certificates expire on June 30 of the appropriate year.
Professional Education Teacher Certification Eligibility Requirements
To be eligible for a Michigan Professional Education Certificate the candidate must:
- hold a current or expired Michigan Provisional Certificate,
- have taught successfully for the equivalent of three years following the issuance of the original Michigan Provisional Certificate within the appropriate content area and grade level on the certificate and
- earn 18 semester hours after the issuance of the Michigan Provisional Certificate in a course of study established and/or approved as a “planned program” by an approved Michigan teacher education institution.
Administrative Rules Governing Certification of Michigan Teachers
- Successful completion of the 18-Hour Plan of Study
- Approval of plan must be through the Certification Officer or faculty member.
- The 18 credits must be awarded after the date of the issuance of certification, located on the front of the certificate.
- Undergraduate credits may be counted, as long as they are related to teaching expertise and approved by the Teacher Education Program before enrolling in the course.
- 12 of the 18 credits must be completed through NMU, with 6 transfer credits allowed.
- No correspondence or TV courses are allowed, except 2-way Interactive TV courses.
- Compliance with the State Department of Education reading requirement
- Three years of successful teaching experience within the appropriate content area and grade level on the certificate
For Professional Certification complete the following forms, available through the Certification Officer or Registration Office:
- Application for the initial Michigan Professional Certificate
- Authorization to Release Information and Consent
Adequate time must be allotted to process applications.
Provisional Renewal Certification
When the Michigan Provisional Certificate expires before the holder is able to fulfill all the requirements for the Michigan Professional Education Certificate, the holder can qualify for the first three-year renewal of the Provisional Certificate by the completion of the first 10 semester hours of the 18-hour Plan of Study required for the Michigan Professional Education Certificate.
A second three-year renewal is available anytime after the actual completion of the 18-Hour Plan of Study. An employing Michigan public or private school may sponsor a teacher for additional renewals beyond the second three-year renewal.
Michigan Provisional Renewal Certificate Requirements
- Successful completion of 10 or 18 credit hours of the Plan of Study
- Completion of the following forms available through the Registrar’s Office:
- Application for Renewal of Expired Provisional Certificate
- Authorization to Release Information and Consent
Professional Education Certificates do not remain valid automatically; the certificates have to be renewed every five years. To renew the certificates, teachers are required every 5 years to complete 6 semester hours of appropriate course work, or take an equivalent number of credits in continuing education units that have been approved by the State Board of Education (SB-CEUs). Applications are available through the Michigan Department of Education.
The State sends a bill after it approves your certification. The following fees must be paid to the State prior to the issuance of a Michigan Teaching Certificate:
- Provisional Certificate $160
- Provisional Renewal Certificate $100
- Professional Education Certificate $160
- Additional Endorsement $50