Office of Indian Affairs (OIA) microfilm
MSS-301

Summary Information

Repository
Central Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan University Archives
Creator
United States. Office of Indian Affairs.
Title
Office of Indian Affairs (OIA) microfilm
ID
MSS-301
Date [inclusive]
1814-1881
Extent
84.0 reels
Language
Location [Drawer]
Microfilm Cabinet 4 -- Drawer 4

Preferred Citation

[Identification of Item], in the Office of Indian Affairs (OIA) microfilm, MSS-301, Central Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan University Archives, Northern Michigan University. Originals from [NARA Publication Number], National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

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Biographical/Historical

Indian affairs were administered by the Office of the Secretary of War from 1789 to 1824. The Office of Indian Affairs (OIA) was established in 1824 as a separate office aligned within the War Department. In 1832 Congress established the position of Commissioner of Indian Affair and jurisdiction for the OIA was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior in 1849. With this change in bureaucratic alignment the Commissioner of Indian Affairs no longer reported to the Secretary of War and began reporting to the Secretary of Interior. In 1947 the Office of Indian Affairs (OIA) was renamed the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).

Superintendencies and Agencies were the two principal field jurisdictions of OIA during the 19th century. Superintendents held the general responsibility for Indian affairs in specific geographic area. Their duties included supervision of relations between the U.S. Government and citizens and the Indian tribes, as well as, the conduct and accounts of the Indian agents within their jurisdiction. Agents were responsible for the affairs of one tribe or reservation. Until about 1878 most agents were accountable to a superintendent, although some reported directly to the OIA in Washington, D.C. In 2014, the BIA is still aligned under the Department of Interior and is responsible for the administration and management of land held in trust by the United States for Native Americans, Native American Tribes and Alaska Natives, and oversees the administration of the Bureau of Indian Education (BIE).

This historical note was compiled utilizing information retrieved from the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) website. For additional historical information please consult their website at www.archives.gov.

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Scope and Contents

This collection documents the correspondence of the Office of Indian Affairs with the Michigan Superintendency, Arizona Superintendency, and Agents at Mackinac (MI), Sault Ste. Marie (MI), LaPointe (WI), Chippewa Agency (MN), and the Chippewa Agency of Crow Wing (MN). It also documents Ratified Treaties of 1854-1855 and the Adjutant General's Office reports on the Returns of Military Forces encamped at Ft. Brady (MI). Also included are microfilmed copies of the Indian Census Rolls from 1885-1940.

These microcopied records are part of the NARA Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. There are other census rolls spread throughout Record Group 75. Most of the census rolls were prepared for a specific purpose, such as the determination of those eligible for a land allotment or per capita payments. Indian census rolls are also in Record Group 48, Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Interior. Additional information regarding the records of the Office of Indian Affairs is available at the NARA website: www.archives.gov.

This collection is arranged by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) Record Group Headers and the subgroups are arranged by the microfilm publication numbers. The items in each subgroup are in numerical order by the microfilm roll number.

Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs:

Publication M1 -- Records of the Michigan Superintendency of Indian Affairs, 1814-1851.

Publication M21 -- Letters Sent by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881.

Publication M234A -- Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881. (Rolls 1-200).

Publication M234B -- Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881. (Rolls 201-400).

Publication M234C -- Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881. (Rolls 401-600).

Publication M348 -- Report Books of the Office of Indian Affairs, 1838-1885.

Publication M574 -- Special Files of the Office of Indian Affairs, 1807-1904.

Publication M595A -- Indian Census Rolls: 1885-1940 (Rolls 1-200).

Publication M595B -- Indian Census Rolls: 1885-1940 (Rolls 201-400).

Publication M856 -- Records of the Central Superintendency of Indian Affairs, 1813-1878.

Publication T494 -- Documents Relating to the Negotiation of Ratified and Unratified Treaties With Various Indian Tribes, 1801-1869.

Records of the Adjutant General's Office, 1780's-1917:

Publication M617A -- Returns From U.S. Military Posts, 1800-1916. Rolls 1-200.

General Records of the United States Government:

Publication M668 -- Ratified Indian Treaties, 1722-1869.

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Arrangement

The materials in this collection are arranged by National Archives Record Group and Publication number and in numerical order by reel.

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Administrative Information

Publication Information

Central Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan University Archives 05/28/2014

Harden Learning Resources Center 126
1401 Presque Isle Ave
Marquette, Michigan, 49855
906-227-1225
archives@nmu.edu

Conditions Governing Access

There are no restrictions. Open for research.

Conditions Governing Use

Material in this collection is in the public domain.

Existence and Location of Originals

Original materials are maintained at The National Archives Building in Washington, DC (Archives I). Archives I houses textual and microfilm records relating to American Indians.

National Archives and Records Administration 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20408-0001

1-866-272-6272

http://www.archives.gov

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Controlled Access Headings

Corporate Name(s)

  • United States. National Archives and Records Administration.
  • United States. Office of Indian Affairs. Central Superintendency.
  • United States. Office of Indian Affairs. La Pointe Agency.
  • United States. Office of Indian Affairs. Mackinac Agency.
  • United States. Office of Indian Affairs. Michigan Superintendency.
  • United States. Office of Indian Affairs.

Subject(s)

  • Indians of North America--Census.
  • Indians of North America--Michigan--Upper Peninsula.
  • Indians of North America--Michigan.
  • Indians of North America--Treaties.
  • Ojibwa Indians--Michigan.

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Other Finding Aids

To locate the original, complete finding aids for each publication from the National Archives and Records Administration, follow these steps:

1. Open this website on your web browser: https://eservices.archives.gov/orderonline. 2. Click on the 'Microfilm' tab. 3. Enter the NARA Publication Number (ex. M21) in the Search box and click on 'Search' 4. Click on Publication Title (it appears as a hyperlink) 5. Click on Publication Details in the right-hand corner to open the PDF of the NARA Publication Finding Aid.

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Collection Inventory

Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 

Publication M1-- Records of the Michigan Superintendency of Indian Affairs, 1814-1851. 

Scope and Contents

This Subgroup contains microfilm from NARA Publication M1 -- Records of the Michigan Superintendency of Indian Affairs, 1814-1851. NARA Publication M1 consists of 71 reels of microfilm, our collection is not all inclusive and consists of 23 (1 duplicate) reels. These reels are maintained in numerical order.

The microfilm in this subgroup contains correspondence between the Michigan Superintendency and Agents at the Mackinac and Sault Ste. Marie Agencies written between 1816 and 1851.

Additional information regarding this NARA Record Group Publication M1 is available at the NARA website: www.archives.gov

Biographical/Historical

In 1805 the Michigan Superintendency was established when the Michigan Territory was organized from the northern part of the Indiana Territory. The Michigan Superintendency was assigned supervision of the principal tribes in the territory; these were the Chippewa, Delaware, Menominee, Miami, Munsee, Oneida, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Seneca, Shawnee, Stockbridge, Winnebago, and Wyandot.

In 1815 with the establishment of the Green Bay and Mackinac Agencies the Michigan Superintendency gradually acquired jurisdiction over nine agencies and a number of subagencies. The Mackinac (Michilimackinac) Agency was located on Mackinac Island. No specific tribes were assigned to the agency, but the principal Indians living in the area were Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi.

In 1822 the Sault Ste. Marie Agency was established on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan near the sault, or falls, of the St. Mary's River. No specific tribes or geographic limits were assigned to the agency originally, but it assumed responsibility for Chippewa and Ottawa Indians living in the upper part of Michigan and in present day Wisconsin and Minnesota. In 1827 a jurisdictional conflict with the St. Peter's Agency was resolved and the Chippewa were definitely assigned to the Sault Ste. Marie Agency. Other Chippewa and Ottawa Indians were aligned within the Mackinac Agency and to the Chicago Agency.

The information utilized in the compiling of this Biographical/Historical note came from the NARA website. Additional historical information regarding the Office of Indian Affairs and the correspondence comprising this collection refer to: www.archives.gov

Roll #4 -- Letters Sent by the Superintendent, 1818–1823: June 6, 1818-April 25, 1822 

Roll #7 -- Letters Received by the Superintendent, 1819–1835: 1820. 

Roll #13 -- Letters Received by the Superintendent, 1819–1835: July-December 1823. 

Roll #36 -- Letters Received by the Superintendent, 1819–1835: January–December 1835. 

Roll #37 -- Letters Sent by the Superintendent and the Agent at Mackinac, 1836–1851: July 18, 1836–June 26, 1839. 

Roll #39 -- Letters Sent by the Superintendent and the Agent at Mackinac, 1836–1851: August 20, 1842-May 2, 1845. 

Roll #40 -- Letters Sent by the Superintendent and the Agent at Mackinac, 1836-1851: May 7, 1845-April 14, 1851. 

Roll #43 -- Letters Received by the Superintendent and the Agent at Mackinac, 1836-1851: August-December 1837. 

Roll #54 -- Letters Received by the Superintendent and the Agent at Mackinac, 1836–1851: December 1842–June 1843. 

Roll #59 -- Letters Received by the Superintendent and the Agent at Mackinac, 1836-1851: July 1845-January 1846. 

Roll #60 -- Letters Received by the Superintendent and the Agent at Mackinac, 1836-1851: December 1845-December 1846. 

Roll #61 -- Letters Received by the Superintendent and the Agent at Mackinac, 1836-1851: January-December 1847. 

Roll #63 -- Letters Received by the Superintendent and the Agent at Mackinac, 1836-1851: April-December 1849. 

Roll #64 -- Letters Received by the Superintendent and the Agent at Mackinac, 1836-1851: January-December 1850 and an Appendix in which are reproduced Letters Received January-June 1851. 

Roll #65 -- Letters Sent by the Agent at Sault Ste. Marie, 1822–1833: July 22, 1822-May 2, 1833 (Copy 1). 

Roll #65 -- Letters Sent by the Agent at Sault Ste. Marie, 1822–1833: July 22, 1822-May 2, 1833 (Copy 2). 

Roll #66 -- Letters Received by the Agent at Sault Ste. Marie, 1822-1833: Volume 1, April 7, 1826-November 23, 1826. 

Roll #67 -- Letters Received by the Agent at Sault Ste. Marie, 1822-1833: Volume 2, January 21, 1827-December 29, 1828. 

Roll #68 -- Letters Received by the Agent at Sault Ste. Marie, 1822-1833: Volume 3, January 1, 1829-April 30, 1833. 

Roll #69 -- Letters Sent by the Agent at Mackinac, Henry R. Schoolcraft, 1833–1836: May 31, 1833-July 1, 1836. 

Roll #70 -- Letters Received by the Agent at Mackinac, 1816–1836: May 7, 1816-November 1, 1831. 

Roll #71 -- Letters Received by the Agent at Mackinac, 1816-1836: May 1, 1833-December 29, 1834. 

Roll #72 -- Letters Received by the Agent at Mackinac, 1816-1836: January 3, 1835-June 29, 1836. 

Publication M21 -- Letters Sent by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881. 

Scope and Contents

This Subgroup contains microfilm from NARA Publication M21 - Letters Sent By The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1882. NARA Publication M21 consists of 166 reels of microfilm; our collection is not all inclusive and consists of 13 reels. These reels are maintained in numerical order.

The microfilm in this subgroup contains letters that included instructions to Superintendents, Agents, and other field officials of the OIA; reports to the Secretary of War; acknowledgments of and replies to incoming letters; appointment notices; and other correspondence relating to the operation of the OIA.

Additional information regarding this NARA Record Group Publication M21 is available at the NARA website: www.archives.gov

Biographical/Historical

The microfilm in this Subgroup, M21 - Letters Sent by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1882, contain reproduced handwritten transcripts of correspondence sent by the Office of Indian Affairs (OIA) between March 18, 1824 and January 5, 1882 (The last complete date of coverage is January 10, 1881). These letters were copied into volumes known in the OIA as “Record Books” through the end of 1860. Until 1869 the letters were transcribed in chronological order. In 1869, the OIA began using multiple volumes simultaneously. Letters relating to certain broad subjects, such as land, civilization, and finance were copied into different volumes.

The information utilized in the compiling of this Biographical/Historical note came from the NARA website. Additional historical information regarding the Office of Indian Affairs and the correspondence comprising this collection refer to: www.archives.gov

Roll #1 -- March 18, 1824-May 3, 1825. 

Roll #2 -- May 4, 1825-May 31, 1826. 

Roll #3 -- June 1826-March 31, 1827. 

Roll #4 -- April 1, 1827-June 5, 1828. 

Roll #5 -- June 5, 1828-June 7, 1829. 

Roll #52 -- June 13-October 27, 1855. 

Roll #53 -- October 28, 1855-March 19, 1856. 

Roll #56 -- January 1-May 25, 1857. 

Roll #58 -- November 1, 1857-April 30, 1858. 

Roll #59 -- May 1-October 23, 1858. 

Roll #60 -- October 25, 1858-April 29, 1859. 

Roll #61 -- April 30-August 23, 1859. 

Roll #62 -- August 24, 1859-February 9, 1860. 

Publication M234 -- Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881 

Scope and Contents

This Subgroup contains microfilm from NARA Publication M234 - Letters Received By The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881. NARA Publication M234 consists of 962 reels of microfilm separated into 5 divisions. Our collection is not all-inclusive and consists of 22 reels. These reels are maintained in numerical order within the NARA Subgroup Divisions.

The microfilm in this subgroup contains correspondence received by the OIA from the Arizona and Michigan Superintendencies, and the Chippewa, LaPointe, and Mackinac Agencies.

Additional information regarding this NARA Record Group Publication M234 are available at the NARA website: www.archives.gov

Biographical/Historical

The Office of Indian Affairs (OIA) utilization of superintendencies and agencies was an established operation by 1824. The Bureau employed other kinds of agents in addition to those in charge of field agencies: Purchasing agents were concerned with obtaining goods; Disbursement agents were responsible for distributing either goods or money to the Indians; Emigration agents assisted in the removal of Indians from one area to another; and Enrolling agents were appointed to prepare rolls of the Indians for annuity disbursements, land allotments, or other purposes. There were also treaty commissioners, inspectors, and special agents assigned to specific missions (such as the investigation of the conduct of regular field employees or the settlement of claims).

The correspondence recorded in this Subgroup, Publication M234, represent communications received from superintendents, agents, and other field officials of the OIA. Contained in these materials are correspondence related to the general situation of the Indians, their population, education, health, and medical care, and their agriculture and subsistence. Matters of administrative concern such as emigration, land allotments, annuity payments, depredations, claims, complaints, traders, buildings, supplies, employees, and accounts are also covered.

There are also instructions, requests, decisions, authorizations, and other communications from the Secretary of the Interior and from the Secretary of War. The Commissioner of the General Land Office often wrote concerning reservations and matters affecting the public domain. From the Second Auditor and other Treasury officials there is much correspondence concerning accounts and other financial matters. The President, Members of Congress, and other officials made inquiries and transmitted other letters. There are vouchers, accounts, and communications from merchants, manufacturers, shippers, bankers, and other persons and firms having commercial relations with the Bureau. There are complaints, claims, requests, inquiries, and other communications from Indians, attorneys, and private citizens. There are applications for office and many other letters from persons with some interest in Indians or the activities of the Bureau.

The information utilized in the compiling of this Biographical/Historical note came from the NARA website. Additional historical information regarding the Office of Indian Affairs and the correspondence comprising this collection refer to: www.archives.gov

Publication M234A -- Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881. (Rolls 1-200). 

Roll #4 -- Arizona Superintendency, 1863-1880: 1870-1871. 

Roll #7 -- Arizona Superintendency, 1863-1880: 1873. 

Roll #149 -- Chippewa Agency, (MN) 1851-1880: 1851-1853. 

Roll #150 -- Chippewa Agency, (MN) 1851-1880: 1854-1855. 

Roll #151 -- Chippewa Agency, (Crow Wing, MN), 1851-1880: 1856-1857. 

Roll #152 -- Chippewa Agency, (Crow Wing, MN), 1851-1880: 1858-1861. 

Publication M234B -- Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881. (Rolls 201-400). 

Roll #387 -- LaPointe Agency, 1831-1880: 1831-1839. 

Roll #388 -- LaPointe Agency, 1831-1880: 1840-1843. 

Roll #389 -- LaPointe Agency, 1831-1880: 1844-1847. 

Roll #390 -- LaPointe Agency, 1831-1880: 1848-1850. 

Publication M234C -- Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881. (Rolls 401-600). 

Roll #402 -- Mackinac Agency, 1828-1880: 1828-1838. 

Roll #403 -- Mackinac Agency, 128-1880: 1839-1852. 

Roll #408 -- Mackinac Agency, 1828-1880: 1867-1869. 

Roll #409 -- Mackinac Agency, 1828-1880: 1870-1871. 

Roll #410 -- Mackinac Agency, 1828-1880: 1872-1873. 

Roll #419 -- Michigan Superintendency, 1824-1851: 1824-1827. 

Roll #420 -- Michigan Superintendency, 1824-1851: 1828-1831. 

Roll #423 -- Michigan Superintendency, 1824-1851: 1838-1839. 

Roll #424 -- Michigan Superintendency, 1824-1851: 1840-1841. 

Roll #425 -- Michigan Superintendency, 1824-1851: 1842-1845. 

Roll #426 -- Michigan Superintendency, 1824-1851: 1846-1851. 

Roll #427 -- Michigan Superintendency Emigration, 1830-1848 and Michigan Superintendency Reserves, 1837-1848. 

Publication M348 -- Report Books of the Office of Indian Affairs, 1838-1885. 

Biographical/Historical

The Report Books contain communications to the Secretary of War and the Secretary of Interior, some copies of letters to the President of the United States, to various committee chairmen and members within the House of Representatives and the Senate, to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, to the President of the Senate, and to other Government officials. The use of the Report Books to record letters to officials other than the supervising Secretary was gradually discontinued; and by 1870 they were being used only for copies of letters sent to the Secretary of the Interior.

The reports contained within the Report Books range from extensive narratives to brief letters transmitting documents or recommending an appointment. Almost every aspect of the administration of Indian affairs is documented within these Report Books, including the negotiation and enforcement of treaties, estimates and appropriations, legislation, investigations, claims (particularly for depredations), maintenance of order and military operations, liquor control, establishment of reservations, appraisements of land, sales of land, issuance of land scrip, allotments, leases, licenses, trust funds, annuity goods, schools, agriculture, the field organization of the Indian service, location of agencies, appointments and employees, buildings, purchase and transportation of supplies, and accounts.

The information utilized in the compiling of this Biographical/Historical note came from the NARA website. Additional historical information regarding the Office of Indian Affairs and the correspondence comprising this collection refer to: www.archives.gov

Scope and Contents

This Subgroup contains microfilm from NARA Publication M348 - Report Books of the Office of Indian Affairs, 1838-1885. NARA Publication M348 consists of 53 reels which contain reproductions of the 53 Report Books of the Office of Indian Affairs, maintained from November 25, 1838 to November 12, 1885. Our collection is not all inclusive and consists of 1 reel.

These Report Books contain manuscript copies of communications sent by the OIA to the member of the President's Cabinet having supervisory responsibility for Indian affairs.

Additional information regarding this NARA Record Group Publication M348 are available at the NARA website: www.archives.gov

Roll #9 -- Volume 9: August 10, 1855-December 31, 1856. 

Publication M574 -- Special Files of the Office of Indian Affairs, 1807-1904. 

Biographical/Historical

The microfilm contained in this Subgroup consists of correspondence, reports, accounts, affidavits, and other records that were brought together for easier reference. The records relate principally to claims and investigations but include some other subjects. The claims are those of traders for goods furnished to Indians or the Government; of transportation contractors for shipping goods; of attorneys for legal fees; of other persons for services to Indians or the Government; of both Indians and whites for losses from depredations; of Indians for losses resulting from their removal from the East; and of persons claiming the right to share in tribal benefits. Many of the claims were submitted in conformance with provisions of treaties between Indian tribes and the United States.

The information utilized in the compiling of this Biographical/Historical note came from the NARA website. Additional historical information regarding the Office of Indian Affairs and the correspondence comprising this collection refer to: www.archives.gov

Scope and Contents

This Subgroup contains microfilm from NARA Publication M574 - Special Files of the Office Of Indian Affairs, 1807-1904. NARA Publication M574 consists of 85 reels which contain reproductions of the Special Files of the Office of Indian Affairs from 1807 to 1904. Our collection is not all inclusive and consists of 3 reels.

Publication M574 contains 303 Special Files, numbered in order (some records are missing). The dates are those of the records in the files, usually the date of receipt in the Office or by a commission. The records within each file are arranged most often either by assigned claim numbers or in the usual order for incoming correspondence of the Office. Copies of letters sent were sometimes filed with pertinent letters received and at times at the end of files.

Additional information regarding this NARA Record Group Publication M574 are available at the NARA website: www.archives.gov

Roll #2 -- Files 13-18. 

Scope and Contents

Roll #2 of NARA Publication M574 contains the following files:

13. Theophile Bruguier and others, claims for depredations committed "by Sisseton Sioux Indians in 1852-55. 1855-58.

14. William McMurray, claim against the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians for losses suffered "by John Johnston, trader, during the years 1815-21. 1842-43.

15. Samuel and Jeremiah Smith, claim for labor at Sauk and Pox mills in 1840 and 1841-42.

16. Robert Grignon, claim for $20,000 allowed to him by the Menominee treaty of 1836, but stricken out by the Senate before ratification. 1837-40.

17. Moses and Lab Falk, traders, 143 claims against the Miami Indians. 1842-45.

18. John Elliot, claim for goods sold in 1839 to Joseph Barnett, a Shawnee Indian. 1840-1842.

Roll #5 -- Files 35-47. 

Scope and Contents

Roll #5 of NARA Publication M574 contains the following files:

35. Charles Graham, claim for services as blacksmith for the Wyandot Indians in 1844. 1846-48.

36. Kennedy & Darling, traders, claim for property destroyed in 1849 by Seminole Indians of Florida. 1849.

37. Abrams children, claim for indemnity as heirs of William. Mclntosh, a Creek Indian. Only one letter, dated 1848, is now in the file.

38. David Myerle, claim for expenses incurred introducing the culture of hemp among the Indians. 1843-51.

39. James M. Marsh, claim for depredations committed by Sioux Indians in 1849. 1849-51.

40. Garry Hinant, claim for value of certain Creek property. 1841-43.

41. Simeon Buckner, claim for demurrage, steamer Kentuckian, 1837- Records missing.

42. Pleasant Williams, claim for "boats and lumber furnished in Cherokee emigration of 1838. 1852-53.

43. John Johnston, claim of estate against the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians under the treaty of March 28, 1836. 1837-51.

44. John M. and Eliza Campbell, Cherokee, claim for commutation of transportation and subsistence of slaves removed west. 1845-1850.

45. Johnson K. Rogers, claim for money advanced for Cherokee emigration. 1841-43.

46. John Rogers, Cherokee, claim for improvements abandoned under the treaty of 1828.

47. Catharine Myott, Winnebago half breed, claim under the treaty of 1837. 1838-47

Roll #30 -- Files 146-148. 

Scope and Contents

Roll #30 of NARA Publication M574 contains the following files:

146. a. Proposals for a treaty with the Ottawa Indians of Kansas. 1857-58.

b. Abstracts of agreements made with Indians in Michigan, Oregon, Washington, and New Mexico in 1855- n.d.

c. Accounts of Subagent Henry Harvey, Osage Subagency. 1850-56.

d. Benjamin and Nancy Merrill, Cherokee reservation claim under the treaties of 1817 and 1819. 1836.

147. Reports of Henry R. Schoolcraft, J. W. Edmonds, and Henry Whiting on claims against the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians under the treaty of March 28, 1836. 1837 (with one 1835 letter).

148. Claims against the Potawatomi Indians under treaties of 1836 adjudicated by J. W. Edmonds. 1837-38.

Publication M595 -- Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940. 

Biographical/Historical

This subgroup contains microfilmed reproductions of the Indian Census Rolls covering 1885 through 1940 and a few later rolls. These census rolls were usually submitted each year by agents or superintendents in charge of Indian reservations as required by an act of Congress of July 4, 1884 (23 Stat. 98).

There is not a census for every reservation or group of Indians for every year since it was not always possible to take a census on some reservations and some rolls were lost over the years. These census rolls only list persons who maintained a formal affiliation with a tribe that was under Federal supervision. Because some tribes, particularly those in the East, have never been under Federal jurisdiction and since many people with some degree of Indian blood did not maintain tribal connections, their names do not appear on the census rolls. For the Five Civilized Tribes of Oklahoma (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole Indians), there is only an 1885 census of the Choctaw Indians.

The information given in the rolls varies to some extent; but usually given are the English and/or Indian name of the person, roll number, age or date of birth, sex, and relationship to head of family. Beginning in 1930 the rolls also show the degree of Indian blood, marital status, ward status, place of residence, and sometimes other information. For certain years--1935, 1936, 1938, and 1939--only supplemental rolls of additions and deductions were compiled. The 1931 or 1932 census rolls often include separate lists that recapitulated births and deaths for the years after 1924. Most of the 1940 rolls have been retained by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and are not included in this microfilm publication. The preparation of rolls was not required after 1940, but a few later ones were submitted.

The information utilized in the compiling of this Biographical/Historical note came from the NARA website. Additional historical information regarding the Office of Indian Affairs and the correspondence comprising this collection refer to: www.archives.gov

Scope and Contents

This Subgroup contains microfilm from NARA Publication M595 - Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940. NARA Publication M595 consists of 692 reels of microfilm separated into 4 divisions. Our collection is not all inclusive and consists of 18 reels. These reels are maintained in numerical order within the NARA Subgroup Divisions.

The microfilm in this subgroup contains reproductions of the Indian Census Rolls covering 1885 through 1940 and a few later rolls. These census rolls were usually submitted each year by agents or superintendents in charge of Indian reservations as required by an act of Congress of July 4, 1884 (23 Stat. 98). In the Indian Census Rolls there are often obsolete spellings and the name of a tribe may be spelled several ways in different census rolls. Sometimes even the name used for a tribe was changed from year to year.

The census rolls that are microfilmed and recorded within NARA Publication 595 are arranged alphabetically by the name of the agency or other jurisdiction and then by year. For jurisdictions with more than one tribe or band or more than one reservation, there may be several rolls for each year. On the individual census rolls family groups are listed together. There is often no discernible order to the listing of families on the earlier rolls , but entries on the later rolls are usually arranged alphabetically by surname of head of family. Supplementary rolls follow the regular rolls for a year.

Additional information regarding this NARA Record Group Publication M595 are available at the NARA website: www.archives.gov

Publication M595A -- Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940. (Rolls 1-200). 

Roll #2 -- Bay Mills School (Chippewa Indians): 1909-1911, 1913-1915/Birch Cooley Agency (Mdewakanton Sioux Indians): 1891-1893, 1895-1898/Bishop Agency (Paiute and Other Indians): 1916-1926. 

Roll #57 -- Consolidated Chippewa: 1923. 

Roll #58 -- Consolidated Chippewa: 1924. 

Roll #59 -- Consolidated Chippewa: 1925. 

Roll #60 -- Consolidated Chippewa: 1926. 

Roll #61 -- Consolidated Chippewa: 1927. 

Roll #62 -- Consolidated Chippewa: 1928. 

Roll #63 -- White Earth Subagency: 1929. 

Roll #64 -- Fond du Lac, Grand Portage, Leech Lake, and Nett Lake (Bois Forte) Subagencies: 1929. 

Roll #65 -- White Earth Reservation: 1930. 

Roll #66 -- Bois Forte (Nett Lake), Cass and Winnibigoshish, Fond du Lac, Grand Portage, Leech Lake, Mille Lac, and White Oak Point Reservations: 1930, 

Roll #170 -- Great Lakes (Chippewa and Potawatomi Indians): 1936-1937 

Roll #171 -- Great Lakes (Chippewa and Potawatomi Indians): 1938-1940. 

Publication M595B -- Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940. (Rolls 201-400). 

Roll #229 -- Lac du Flambeau (Chippewa Indians): 1910-1927. 

Roll #230 -- Lac du Flambeau, Bad River, and Red Cliff Chippewa Indians, and Potawatomi Indians: 1928-1930. 

Roll #231 -- Lac du Flambeau, Bad River, and Red Cliff Chippewa Indians, and Potawatomi Indians: 1931, 1932 (with Birth and Death Rolls, 1924-1932). 

Roll #232 -- Lac du Flambeau, Bad River, Lac Courte Oreilles, and Red Cliff Chippewa Indians, and Potawatomi Indians: 1933-1935. 

Roll #253 -- Mackinac (Chippewa Indians): 1902-1903, 1910, 1915-1927. 

Publication M856 -- Records of the Central Superintendency of Indian Affairs, 1813-1878. 

Biographical/Historical

An act of Congress of February 27, 1851 (9 Stab. 574), authorized the President to appoint three superintendents for the administration of Indian tribes east of the Rocky Mountains and north of New Mexico and Texas. The Central Superintendency was established as the successor to the St. Louis Superintendency which had been established in 1822 as the successor to the Missouri Superintendency. The Central Superintendency was relocated four times between 1851 and 1878: St. Louis, Missouri, 1851-1859; St. Joseph, Missouri, 1859-1865; Atchison, Kansas, 1865-1869; and Lawrence, Kansas, 1869-1878.

The Central Superintendency originally was responsible for most of the Indians in what is now Kansas and Nebraska and in the upper regions of the Missouri, Platte, and Arkansas Rivers in the Dakotas, Wyoming, and Colorado. As new territories were organized and new superintendencies were established, the Central Superintendency's area of responsibilty was to become limited to those agencies located in the Indian Territory. In 1877 the agents under the jurisdiction of the Central Superintendency began reporting directly to the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Central Superintendency was discontinued in 1878.

The information utilized in the compiling of this Biographical/Historical note came from the NARA website. Additional historical information regarding the Office of Indian Affairs and the correspondence comprising this collection refer to: www.archives.gov

Scope and Contents

This Subgroup contains microfilm from NARA Publication M856 - Records of the Central Superintendency of Indian Affairs, 1813-1878. NARA Publication M856 consists of 108 reels which contain reproductions of the records of the Central Superintendency of Indian Affairs, 1851-1878, and some of the records of its predecessor, the St. Louis Superintendency, 1823-1850. A few records dated as early as 1813, principally relating to the Osage Indians, are also included. Our collection is not all inclusive and consists of 1 reel.

Publication M856 contains records of the Central Superintendency relating to activities within their jurisdiction of Indian administration. Correspondence of the Superintendency was conducted with the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Chief Clerk of the Office of Indian Affairs, the Secretary of Interior, agents of the Superintendency, acting agents, former agents, agency clerks, and agency employees. The Records of the Central Superintendency also contains correspondence between the Superintendency and the Second Auditor and other Government officials, as well as, businesses, attorneys, realtors, Indians, teachers, the headquarters of the Department of the Missouri, and Army commanders in the field in Kansas, Texas, and the Indian Territory.

The documents reproduced in this microfilm relate to the negotiation and enforcement of treaties; land surveys and allotments; Indian removal; annuity and other payments; Indian delegations; intrusions on Indian lands; traders and licenses; enforcement of Federal laws and regulations; hostilities and military operations; depredation claims; location of agencies; school attendance and cirricula; medical treatment; production at blacksmith, gunsmith, and wheelwright shops; construction and repair of buildings; and purchase and transportation of goods and supplies; agency monthly reports, reports of changes of agency employees, reports from agency employees, and lists of school pupils.

Additional information regarding this NARA Record Group Publication M856 are available at the NARA website: www.archives.gov

Roll #91 -- Letters Sent to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs (Handwritten Copies), Volumes 1 and 2: May 23, 1855-February 5, 1863. 

Publication T494 -- Documents Relating to the Negotiation of Ratified and Unratified Treaties With Various Indian Tribes, 1801-1869. 

Biographical/Historical

Some of these treaties were made between Indian tribes without the United States as signatory. Most of the records in these files were taken from the incoming correspondence of the Office of Indian Affairs and that of the Secretary of War relating to Indian affairs.

The information utilized in the compiling of this Biographical/Historical note came from the NARA website. Additional historical information regarding the Office of Indian Affairs and the correspondence comprising this collection refer to: www.archives.gov

Scope and Contents

This Subgroup contains microfilm from NARA Publication T494 - Documents Relating to the Negotiation of Ratified and Unratified Treaties with Various Indian Tribes, 1801-1869, consists of 10 reels. Our collection is not all inclusive and consists of 1 reel. The ratified treaty files are arranged by treaty number assigned by the State Department (the custodian of the original treaties), thereby making the files the equivalent of a chronological arrangement by date of signing of the treaties. The unratified treaty files are arranged chronologically.

The materials reproduced in this microfilmed publication are the journals of treaty commissioners, proceedings of councils, reports, and other records relating to the negotiation of Indian treaties that were ratified by the Senate plus similar records pertaining to Indian treaties that were never ratified by the Senate.

Additional information regarding this NARA Record Group Publications T494 are available at the NARA website: www.archives.gov

Roll #5 -- Ratified Treaties: 1854-1855. 

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Records of the Adjutant General's Office, 1780's-1917. 

Publication M617 -- Returns From U. S. Military Posts, 1800-1916. 

Biographical/Historical

The commanding officer of every post, as well as commanders of all other bodies of troops such as department, division, brigade, regiment, or detachment, was required by Army Regulations to submit a return (a type of personnel report) to The Adjutant General at specified intervals, usually monthly, on forms provided by that office. Several additions and modifications were made in the form over the years, but basically it was designed to show the units that were stationed at a particular post and their strength, the names and duties of the officers, the number of officers present and absent, a listing of official communications received, and a record of events.

The information utilized in the compiling of this Biographical/Historical note came from the NARA website. Additional historical information regarding the Office of Indian Affairs and the correspondence comprising this collection refer to: www.archives.gov

Scope and Contents

This Subgroup contains microfilm from NARA Publication M617 - Returns From U. S. Military Posts, 1800-1916. NARA Publication M617 consists of 1550 reels of microfilm separated into 8 divisions. Our collection is not all inclusive and consists of 1 reel.

M617 consists of reproductions of returns from U.S. military posts from the early 1800's to 1916, with a few returns extending through 1917. Most of the records are monthly post returns; morning reports, field, returns, rosters of officers, and related papers. Field returns show the movement of troops or detachments to and from the post or station and/or give information concerning detachments in the field from units at the post. Among the related papers are some cards that contain information pertaining to wars and skirmishes with the Indians. Also included are papers containing historical information about the post, lists of officers and commanders of the post, and data relating to the establishment and the abandonment of the post.

Additional information regarding this NARA Record Group Publication M617 is available at the NARA website: www.archives.gov

Publication M617A -- Returns From U.S. Military Posts, 1800-1916. Rolls 1-200. 

Roll #132 -- Ft. Brady, Michigan: June 1822-December 1841. 

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General Records of the United States Government. 

Publication M668 -- Ratified Indian Treaties, 1722-1869. 

Biographical/Historical

Formal treaties were negotiated with the Indians by the United States Government following a custom established by Great Britain and the colonial governments. Indian treaties were made by the Continental Congress and by the Congress of the Confederation and were continued under the Constitution adopted in 1789. The last treaty was made with the Nez Perce on August 13, 1868, and ratified by the Senate on February 16, 1869. The form for such treaties and the U.S. procedure for putting them into effect were the same as for treaties with foreign nations. The treaties required ratification by the Senate and had the same status, force, and dignity as agreements with sovereign nations. This practice of according full treaty status to agreements with Indian tribes was discontinued by an act of Congress of March 3, 1871 (16 Stat. 566), which forbade further recognition of Indian tribes as nations or independent powers and prohibited further treaty negotiations with them. The act did not abrogate existing treaties.

The information utilized in the compiling of this Biographical/Historical note came from the NARA website. Additional historical information regarding the Office of Indian Affairs and the correspondence comprising this collection refer to: www.archives.gov

Scope and Contents

This Subgroup contains microfilm from NARA Publication M668 - Ratified Indian Treaties, 1722-1869. NARA Publication M668 consists of 16 reels of microfilm. Our collection is not all inclusive and consists of 1 reel.

The materials reproduced in microfilm publication M668 are ratified Indian treaties, 1722-1869, with related papers; a chronological list of the treaties; and indexes by place and by tribe. The list and indexes include a few entries dated as late as 1883.

Additional information on NARA Publication M668 is available at the NARA website: www.archives.gov

Roll #11 -- Treaties 277-300: November 15, 1854-December 21, 1855. 

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