Seney National Wildlife Refuge records
MSS-108

Summary Information

Repository
Central Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan University Archives
Creator
National Wildlife Refuge System (U.S.).
Creator
Saunders, Harvey C.
Title
Seney National Wildlife Refuge records
ID
MSS-108
Date [inclusive]
1938-1982
Extent
3.0 Cubic feet
Language

Preferred Citation Note

[Identification of item], in the Seney Wildlife Refuge records, MSS-108, Central Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan University Archives, Northern Michigan University.

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Historical Note

Seney National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1935 for the protection and production of migratory birds and other wildlife. Today the refuge is a rich mosaic of marsh, swamp, bog, grassland, and forest; with nearly two-thirds as wetlands.

Over a century ago, lumbering operations forever altered the landscape of the Upper Peninsula’s great pine forests. The ring of the lumberman’s axe echoed through the forests as local mills depleted the region’s valuable supply of red and white pine. After the pine forests were cut, mill owners turned their axes and saws to the refuge’s northern hardwood and swamp conifer species. Following the lumbering operations, fires were often set to clear away the debris. These fires burned deep into the organic soil, damaging its quality and killing the seeds that would have produced a new forest. On many areas of the refuge, the scars from these lumbering operations remain visible to this day.

After the fires, a land development company dug many miles of drainage ditches throughout Seney. This drained acreage was then sold using extravagant promises of agricultural productivity, but the new owners quickly learned that these promises were unfounded. One by one, the farms were abandoned, and the land reverted to state ownership.

In 1934, the Michigan Conservation Department recommended to the Federal Government that the Seney area be developed for wildlife. This proposal was accepted and Seney National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1935. Physical development and restoration of the refuge land began soon after establishment. With the aid of the Civilian Conservation Corps, an intricate system of dikes, water control structures, ditches, and roads was built. This system now impounds over 7,000 acres of open water in 26 major pools.

This history was taken from the official informational brochure of the Seney Wildlife Refuge and can be found at http://www.fws.gov/midwest/seney/documents/Seney.pdf

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Scope and Contents Note

This collection documents the administration of the Seney Wildlife Refuge. The collection mainly contains annual narrative reports. The reports describe, among other things, weather and climate conditions, resource management, fire control, species inventories and conditions, land use planning, pesticide studies, water management practices, and habitat management. The collection also contains information on Depression era Works Progress Administration (WPA) activities and World War II concientious objector camps. Also included are field notes, photographs, and personal accounts of early Seney conditions at the turn of the century by Harvey C. Saunders, including histories of Germfask and Grand Marais, logging and early logging drives. The collection's materials date from 1938 to 1982.

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Arrangement note

The collection is arranged into three series: I. Annual narrative reports, II. Harvey C. Saunders memoirs, and III. Photographs.

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Administrative Information

Publication Information

Central Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan University Archives 5/24/2010

Harden Learning Resources Center 126
1401 Presque Isle Ave
Marquette, Michigan, 49855
906-227-1225
archives@nmu.edu

Revision Description

  5/24/2010

Conditions Governing Access note

No restrictions. Open for research.

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Controlled Access Headings

Geographic Name(s)

  • Seney National Wildlife Refuge (Mich.).

Subject(s)

  • Lumbering--Michigan--Upper Peninsula.
  • Wildlife refuges--Michigan--Upper Peninsula.

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Collection Inventory

Box 1 of 4 Narrative Reports 1938-1965 

Box
11-04-07

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1938--CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps), WPA (Works Progress Administration) 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1939--CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps), WPA (Works Progress Administration) 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1940--CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps), WPA (Works Progress Administration) 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1941--CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps), WPA (Works Progress Administration) 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1942--CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps), WPA (Works Progress Administration) 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1943 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1944--Ten Year Review--includes CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps), WPA (Works Progress Administration) 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1945--Conscientious Objectors 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1946 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1947 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1948 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1949 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1950 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1951 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1952 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1953 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1954 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1955 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1956--new position: Tour Leader 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1957 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1958 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1959 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1960 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1961 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1962--Accelerated Public works Program 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1963--Accelerated Public Works Program; Visitor Center Construction; new Picnic Area 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1964--Accelerated Public Works Program 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos, 1965--President's Youth Opportunity Corps 

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Box 2 of 4 Narrative Reports and Harvey C. Saunders 

Box
11-04-08

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--1966 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--Recreation Management Plan, 1967 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--1967 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--1968 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--1969 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--1970 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--1971 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--1972 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--1973 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--1974 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--1975 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--1976 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--1977 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--1978 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--1979 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--1980 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--1981 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--1982 

Harvey Cookson Saunders--Family--Conscientious objectors camp, CPS 135, Seney National Wildlife Refuge [WWII and Vietnam], 1944-1969 

Harvey Cookson Saunders--Family--Autobiography; Field book, circa 1968 

Harvey Cookson Saunders--Family--Correspondence; Interview notes; Memoir materials, 1904-2000 

Harvey Cookson Saunders--Family--Manuscript--"How Grand Marais Became a Town," undated 

Harvey Cookson Saunders--Family--Manuscripts--"My First Visit to Seney;" "My 16 Years Working at Seney Refuge;" News clippings, circa 1963 

Harvey Cookson Saunders--Family--Manuscripts--"What do I know about Red Jack Smith?;" "Arrival at Campbo," circa 1963 

Harvey Cookson Saunders--Family--Manuscripts--"Driggs River Drive of 1900;" "River Driving;" "Dams and Dam Building on the Indian River in 1902," undated 

Harvey Cookson Saunders--Family--Manuscripts--"Memories of Logging and River Driving Days (1903 and 1904 Hemlock Bark);" "Memories of Camp Life and Logging Days (April 1904)," 1903-1904 

Harvey Cookson Saunders--Copy: "The Lone Survivor, as Related to the History of Germfask Township, Schoolcraft County Michigan" by E.W. Kiebler, 1956 

Harvey Cookson Saunders--Blue Journal--"Land Transfers," circa 1967 

Harvey Cookson Saunders--Blue journal--Continuation of Red--What life in camp was like, 1966 

Harvey Cookson Saunders--Family--Miscellaneous--"Historical Sketch of Germfask Township" by Hon. D.F. Morrison; "The Last of a Breed - The Life of a Logger in Main, Michigan Woods 1878-19??" notes; correspondence, undated 

Harvey Cookson Saunders--Family--Correspondence; Notes with Marianne Kronk, undated 

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Box 3 of 4 Photographs 

Box
35-03-26 LRC

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual report--photos 1954; 1957; 1963; 1964; 1965; 1967 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual report--photos(1 OF 4) 1968 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual report--photos (2 OF 4) 1968 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual report--photos (3 OF 4) 1968 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual report (4 OF 4) 1968 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual report--photos (1 OF 2) 1969 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual report--photos (2 OF 2) 1969 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual report--photos--HURON ISLANDS 1969 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual report--photos (1 OF 2) 1970 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual report--photos (2 OF 2) 1970 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual report--photos (1 OF 2) 1971 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual report--photos (2 OF 2) 1971 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual report--photos (1 OF 4) 1972 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual report--photos (2 OF 4) 1972 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual report--photos (3 OF 4) 1972 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual report--photos (4 OF 4) 1972 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual report--photos--HURON ISLANDS 1972 

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Box 4 of 4 Photographs 

Box
35-03-27 LRC

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos 1975 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos-- (1 OF 2) 1976 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos (2 OF 2) 1976 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos (1 OF 2) 1977 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos (2 OF 2) 1977 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos 1978 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos (1 OF 2) 1979 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos (2 OF 2) 1979 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos (1 OF 2) 1980 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos (2 OF 2) 1980 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos (1 OF 2) 1981 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos (2 OF 2) 1981 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos (1 OF 2) 1982 

Seney National Wildlife Refuge--Annual Narrative Report--photos (2 OF 2) 1982 

Civilian Conservation Corps [CCC] Camp Germfask, Co. 3626--photos(1 OF 6) 1935-1939 

Civilian Conservation Corps [CCC] Camp Germfask, Co. 3626--photos(2 OF 6) 1935-1939 

Civilian Conservation Corps [CCC] Camp Germfask, Co. 3626--photos(3 OF 6) 1935-1939 

Civilian Conservation Corps [CCC] Camp Germfask, Co. 3626--photos(4 OF 6) 1935-1939 

CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS [CCC] CAMP GERMFASK, CO. 3626--photos (5 OF 6) 1935-1939 

CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS [CCC] CAMP GERMFASK, CO. 3626--photos (6 OF 6) 1935-1939 

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Box 5 of 5 Oversized 

Box
18-06-15

"Seney Wildlife Refuge: A Haven for Waterfowl," The Milwaukee Journal (Sep. 26, 1965) 

Photograph-3626th CCC Camp Germfask BF-1(Mich), Germfask, Michigan (May 14, 1938) 

Photograph-Company 3626 C.C.C. Camp Germfask, Germfask, Mich (n.d.) 

Photograph-Company 632 C.C.C. Camp Gogebic, Marenisco, Mich. (n.d.) 

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